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von Brömssen, K., Flensner, K. K., Korp, H. & Risenfors, S. (2023). Emergency Education’ in Sweden: Implications for Sustainable Development through Education for Newly Arrived Students. Ethiopian Journal of Teacher Education and Leadership, 1(1), 55-79, Article ID 01010422.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergency Education’ in Sweden: Implications for Sustainable Development through Education for Newly Arrived Students
2023 (English)In: Ethiopian Journal of Teacher Education and Leadership, ISSN 2959-1783, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 55-79, article id 01010422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports part of a research project that investigated the learning and social inclusion conditions of ‘newly arrived students’ in Swedish primary schools in two municipalities. Newly arrived students are the category of students who have lived abroad and started their education in Sweden when they were seven years old or older within the last four years. Most of these children and youth have a history of migration. This article focuses firstly on the Swedish migration context, the ‘migration crisis’ in 2015 and the changes in the Swedish reception system that took place soon thereafter and, second, ethnographic observations from Primary Schools of two specific perspectives in education, namely a perspective on ‘Framing of the day and the lesson’ and ‘Study tutoring in the mother tongue in regular teaching’. The results indicated that strong supporting structures and structured social interaction are needed as well as caring and empathy on the part of teachers to promote learning and social inclusion of newly arrived students are required. Furthermore, study tutoring in the mother tongue in regular teaching seems to be important while the study tutors’ view of their mission varies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EJTEL - Ethiopian Journals online / Addis Ababa University, 2023
Keywords
education in emergencies, Sweden, migration, ‘newly arrived children and youth’, reception system, teaching
National Category
Pedagogical Work Social Work
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19970 (URN)10.20372/ejtel.v1i1.7639 (DOI)
Note

This Open Access journal is newly started (2022). Kerstin von Brömssen is on the advisory board. CC BY 4.0

Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2024-04-25
von Brömssen, K., Flensner, K. K., Gregorc Lööv, H., Korp, H. & Risenfors, S. (2022). Newly arrived migrant children in the Swedish school-system: Challenges and Opportunities in a Nordic Welfare State. In: : . Paper presented at First Joint International Conference on Education in Emergencies in East Africa : Implication for Sustainable Development; Addis Ababa University, 26. -28. May 2022; Book of Abstracts (pp. 38-39).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Newly arrived migrant children in the Swedish school-system: Challenges and Opportunities in a Nordic Welfare State
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Sweden has experienced waves of migration into the country since the end of the WWII. Pull-factors for migration were opportunities to get a job in the industries right after the war as Sweden was not much effected, but also due to the world’s conflicts, effects from the climate change and a desire to live a better life.In recent years, there has been a larger increase in the number of foreign-born. In 2020, just over 2 million people were born abroad, which is 19.7 percent of the population in Sweden. The most common country of birth for foreign-born is currently Syria, followed by Iraq. Finland was for many years the most common country of birth, but is today the third most common country, followed by Poland and Iran. The migration from the African Horn is also quite extensive, where Somalis are the largest group from Africa in Sweden (in 2018 there were more than 100 000 Somali people living in the country). Since the start of the new millennium, Sweden has experienced an intense debate over migration and several new laws have been passed in order to restrict migration. This is also the case in several other European countries. However, Sweden used to be described as one of the Nordic welfare states and have enjoyed an international reputation for combining generous welfare state entitlements with rapid economic growth, low unemployment and very high levels of labor force participation, particularly among women. This welfare model, characterized by generous, non-tested benefits, a strong element of redistribution in the systems and thus high taxes, was developed after the WWII, but had ideological roots in the labor movement back from the late 1800s. One example of the welfare model is that Sweden offers free education from age 6 to19 and also free school lunches. Over the last twenty years the welfare model has been challenged due to globalization and migration and an increase in international financial competition which also have affected education with reduced resources. However, a large body of research show that education plays a significant role in the health and wellbeing as well as for integration in the “new society”, and education is pointed out as one of the most important institutions for newly arrived migrant children. This paper builds on research investigating reception strategies and inclusion for newly arrived children in schools in two municipalities in Sweden, as well as the migrant students own reflections on these issues. The research was carried out over the years 2016-2018.

Methods: The empirical for the study consisted of two parts. The first part built on interviews with educational leaders at primary schools and staff at reception units in the two municipalities, partly through questionnaires (N=39) with supplementary telephone interviews to the principals (N=24). The second part explored the newly arrived migrant students’ reception and conditions for learning and social inclusion out from their perspective. This part of the study is based on ethnographic work from eight school units with different conditions and way of organizing teaching for newly arrived migrant children.

Results: The study showed that there are currently established guidelines and organization for the assessment and reception of newly arrived students in Sweden, however in practice various known and applied. Among the eight school units included in the study were schools with long experience of receiving newly arrived students, and teaching students with different cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds, but also schools that can be described as ‘monocultural’, whose experience of receiving newly arrived students were very limited. The differences between schools in student composition reflects a school segregation that is linked to housing segregation and strengthened by the free choice of school introduced in the beginning of the 1990s’. The study describes how newly arrived students' everyday lives and conditions for learning and inclusion emerge in the diverse environments and how different structural and organizational conditions have consequences for students' learning and social inclusion.

Keywords
Migration, Sweden, free education, newly arrived, learning, social inclusion
National Category
Educational Sciences Human Geography
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18585 (URN)
Conference
First Joint International Conference on Education in Emergencies in East Africa : Implication for Sustainable Development; Addis Ababa University, 26. -28. May 2022; Book of Abstracts
Available from: 2022-06-21 Created: 2022-06-21 Last updated: 2022-06-21Bibliographically approved
Korp, H. & Rinnemaa, P. (2022). Reconstructing Parenthood Post Migration: Newly Arrived Parents’ Reflections on Upbringing, Education and Parental Support in Sweden. In: ECER European Community for Educational Research, 2022: . Paper presented at ECER-konferensen, Yerevan (Armenia), 23-25 aug 2022 (pp. 1-1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstructing Parenthood Post Migration: Newly Arrived Parents’ Reflections on Upbringing, Education and Parental Support in Sweden
2022 (English)In: ECER European Community for Educational Research, 2022, 2022, p. 1-1Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contribution

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how newly arrived parents construct and reconstructed parenthood post-migration; of challenges and opportunities they see in regard to the upbringing and education of their children in a new host-society; how they navigate to provide the best conditions and support for their children given the resources they have access to. Based on the parents’ views, the paper further suggests how parental support might be tailored to meet the needs of newly arrived parents

The paper draws on theories and concepts from research on parenthood in the context of migration and ethnic diversity and on parental engagement in school.

Ochocka & Janzen (2008), explain that international (especially forced) migration involve reconstructing oneself as a parent under new social, cultural, political and existential conditions, a process that entails interpreting and assessing norms and practices in the new context as well as reinterpreting and reassessing notions of parenting that might have been taken more or less for granted in the home-country. What are seen as “natural” and “right” ways to act as a parent in different situations relates to (mostly implicit and taken for granted) ideas about children, family and parenthood, “parental ethno-theories“. These are formed in the cultural contexts of which the parents are part (Harkness & Super (2013). Further, the same kind of parental support may be valued equally but expressed differently in various cultural contexts. Neely & McBarber (2010) conclude from a cross-cultural study that “(s)tudies of supportive parenting based on measures developed, typically, by majority, middle-class scholars in the United States may ignore or misinterpret ethnotheories present in other cultures” (p. 606).

Parents’ engagement in their children’s education has been found in several studies to benefit children’s academic results (Wilder, 2014), especially for children with migration or ethnic minority background (Sibley & Dearing, 2014; Epstein, 2011), and improves children’s attitudes to education and sense of belonging in school (Suarez-Orozco, Onaga, de Lardemelle, 2010). Immigrated parents generally, across educational levels and national backgrounds, consistently show higher educational aspirations for their children and value education higher than native-born parents (Areepattamannil & Lee, 2014).  Even so, studies from different high GPD countries indicate that the relationship between school and parents with migration or minority is often laden with complications Schneider & Arnot, 2018 a; Antony-Newman, 2019). Research on parental engagement across countries shows that the expected and rewarded forms for parents’ involvement in school are typically modelled on the values, life-circumstances and communication-styles of a white national resident middle-class patterns parents (Antony-Newman, 2019). Parents who do not share these circumstances have been found to frequently fail to get their parental resources, support and interaction-modes recognized and validated by school staff (Schneider & Arnot 2018 a; Kim, 2009; Dahlstedt, 2009). On a societal level, due to patterns of downward mobility often associated with migration, migrant parents’ school engagement is oftentimes mitigated by school-segregation and under-resourced communities, as well as by economic scarcity, long shifts and extensive travel time (Antony-Newman, 2019). While these conditions are shared not only by many migrant parents, but also by many in-born ethnic minorities and working-class parents, linguistic obstacles, loss of social networks in connection with the migration process and lack of knowledge about the national education system and cultural norms exacerbate the effects (ibid.). For parents who arrived as refugees, the capacity to support their children’s education may in addition be adversed by pre- peri and post-migration trauma, including the consequences of state migration policies (e.g. deportability, extended asylum-processes, obstacles for family-reunification, undocumentedness (Martin et al., 2018; Wahlström Smith, 2018).

Method

The study is based on data from qualitative interviews with 11 newly arrived parents, 5 women and 6 men, who took part of a five-week study-circle organized by the municipal integration office with the aim to offer parents information about the Swedish school-system and policies that bear on parents’ responsibilities and children’s rights in the family, as well as opportunity to discuss with other parents, and thus strengthen the parents’ capacity to support their children constructively, especially in regard to school. They had resettled in Sweden between 2015 and 2018 and came from Iraq (1), Syria (7), Eritrea (1), and Afghanistan (2). The interviews were semi-structured, based on an interview-guide with open questions, and followed an active mode of interviewing, inviting the participants to reflect and elaborate further on their experiences and views (see e.g. Holstein & Gubrium, 2016). With Dari-speaking participants, interviews were carried out in Persian by researcher 1. For interviews with Arabic-speaking participants, an interpreter was involved. The group-interview was supported by an Arabic-/English-speaking assistant and carried out in mixed languages (Swedish, Arabic and English). All interviews were transcribed and translated into Swedish. The names of participants in our study are pseudonyms. The material was analyzed using a qualitative approach: Both researchers read all transcripts in order to grasp the major themes and variations within themes; in this process we both wrote analytic memos; several meetings were held where the interpretations and outcomes were compared and assessed in regard to the data and to previous research; a common coding scheme was worked out as a result and tested on the material and modified to capture the complexity of the material; the themes were described through accounts of variations and sustained by exemplary quotes from the participants.

Expected Outcomes

The findings reflect that the migration process induces reflections about what it means to be a good parent. These reflections on parenting were paralleled by reflections on the school-system. The parents’ accounts show that they struggled to balance “traditional” norms (e.g. strict parental/teacher control, emphasis on discipline and respectability) which they associated with the former home country, and liberal norms (bi-directional parent-child relationships, child-centered pedagogy, emphasis on independence and democracy) which they attributed to the new. Parents took different positions in this, talking about the normative and political context for education and upbringing as either aligned or opposed to their own parental belief-systems; as either allowing them to relate to their children in a deeper and more authentic way, or alienating the children from their parents and original culture. The parents showed a strong commitment to develop working parental strategies for the new context, but also concern about how losses of economic, social and cultural capital (e.g. downward social mobility, leaving significant parts of social networks behind, lacking adequate linguistic skills and knowledge about the education-system) adversed their capacity. In addition, the parents worried that their children (1) did not get sufficient linguistic support to keep up in the subjects, (2) met low teacher expectations, (3) lacked peers and risked bullying. These concerns reflect real and general challenges that newly arrived families from the global south and with refugee-background typically face in Sweden and other high-gpd countries, well documented through research. Recognizing parents’ engagement and the forms of support they do provide, while also realizing the impact of structural and linguistic conditions on children’s educational situation and parents’ capacity to provide productive support, is fundamental for understanding and defeating observed achievement gaps in the Swedish school-system and in tailoring parental support.

Keywords
parenthood, post-migration
National Category
Pedagogical Work Social Work
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19583 (URN)
Conference
ECER-konferensen, Yerevan (Armenia), 23-25 aug 2022
Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Korp, H., Wyszynska Johansson, M. & Lindholm, M.-L. (2022). ULF forskning: praktiknära och praktikutvecklande skolforskning. In: : . Paper presented at LINA Week 40, 3-7 OCTOBER, 2022 University West, Sweden. Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ULF forskning: praktiknära och praktikutvecklande skolforskning
2022 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst, 2022
Keywords
skolforskning, praktiknära, ULF
National Category
Learning
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19935 (URN)
Conference
LINA Week 40, 3-7 OCTOBER, 2022 University West, Sweden
Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
von Brömssen, K., Korp, H., Flensner, K. K. & Risenfors, S. (2021). A "blind spot": Reproduction of racism in educational landscapes. In: Karen Bjerg Petersen, Kerstin von Brömssen, Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen, Jesper Garsdal, Michael Paulsen & Oleg Koefoed (Ed.), Rethinking education in light of global challenges: Scandinavian perspectives on culture, society, and the  Anthropocene (pp. 51-65). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A "blind spot": Reproduction of racism in educational landscapes
2021 (English)In: Rethinking education in light of global challenges: Scandinavian perspectives on culture, society, and the  Anthropocene / [ed] Karen Bjerg Petersen, Kerstin von Brömssen, Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen, Jesper Garsdal, Michael Paulsen & Oleg Koefoed, Routledge, 2021, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter is divided into five sections. The first section starts with a narrative from one of our research projects on inclusion and equality for newly arrived students in elementary schools, which was a case study in two municipalities in Sweden (Korp et al., 20191). This narrative will be used for discussion on race and racism in the following sections, both in a historical and in a contemporary perspective. As argued by Martin Eriksson, there is quite a lot of research on race and racism in Sweden during the time period 1900–45, but Eriksson looks for research that does not stop at the end of this period, and studies the continuity between current racism and racial intolerance and those of earlier periods (Eriksson 2016, p. 17). This is a discussion we want to contribute to, arguing that racist discourses are vicious social constructions which both live on as historical memories, as well as being constantly renewed (cf. Schierup, Ålund & Neergaard, 2018). The issues of race and racism discussed in this chapter were not at the front of our initial research questions, but came to be an important result in relation to inclusion and equality for newly arrived students in Swedish elementary schools (Korp et al., 2019). The chapter ends with a section on silencing racism in school and how this can be related to a strong welfare state. Reflections on education, racism and silences on racism conclude the chapter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
Racism, Sweden, school
National Category
Pedagogy International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17874 (URN)10.4324/9781003217213-4 (DOI)9781003217213 (ISBN)9781032108193 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-12-08 Created: 2021-12-08 Last updated: 2022-01-04Bibliographically approved
Korp, H. & Stretmo, L. (2020). The predicament of the child refugee: €“ understanding health and wellbeing in the daily life of migrant children and young people. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 15(sup2), Article ID 1843268.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The predicament of the child refugee: €“ understanding health and wellbeing in the daily life of migrant children and young people
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 15, no sup2, article id 1843268Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16120 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2020.1843268 (DOI)33297903 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15 Last updated: 2020-12-16Bibliographically approved
von Brömssen, K., Flensner, K. K., Korp, H. & Risenfors, S. (2019). A 'blind-spot': reproduction of racism in educational landscapes. In: OMICS 2019 : Programme: Education : Norms and values mediated in education. Paper presented at Organizing Migration and Integration in Contemporary Societies,OMICS, 6-8 November, 2019, Gothenburg, Sweden. Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, room B22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 'blind-spot': reproduction of racism in educational landscapes
2019 (English)In: OMICS 2019 : Programme: Education : Norms and values mediated in education, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2019, Vol. room B22Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2019
Keywords
Racism, education
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Child and Youth studies; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Educational science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14762 (URN)
Conference
Organizing Migration and Integration in Contemporary Societies,OMICS, 6-8 November, 2019, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2020-09-21Bibliographically approved
Spante, M., Varga, A. & Korp, H. (2019). Hitta drivet: Studiemotivation och genusmönster i grundskolan. Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hitta drivet: Studiemotivation och genusmönster i grundskolan
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst, 2019. p. 28
Series
Brief reports, BUV
Keywords
Studiemotivation, grundskolan, genus
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Child and Youth studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14009 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2022-09-22Bibliographically approved
Korp, H., Sjöberg, L. & Thorsen, C. (2019). Individual Development Plans in the Swedish Comprehensive School: Supporting High Quality Learning and Equity, or Rote Learning and Social Reproduction?. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(2), 229-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual Development Plans in the Swedish Comprehensive School: Supporting High Quality Learning and Equity, or Rote Learning and Social Reproduction?
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Swedish compulsory school, individual development plans (IDPs) are mandatory for all students up to 6th grade. The purpose is to summarize and facilitate pupils' learning and tune instruction to national standards. In this study, 233 IDPs drawn up for 5th grade pupils were analyzed with focus on qualities that have been found to impact students' learning and learner identities. The results show that the IDPs rarely display the qualities that would make them effective as tools for enhancing students' learning, and that there is a gender difference in the quality of the documents, as well as differences regarding the pupils' academic background.

Keywords
Individual development plans, formative assessment, equity, social reproduction
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Child and Youth studies; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Educational science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11255 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2017.1336478 (DOI)000456295700005 ()2-s2.0-85021155132 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 21 Jun 2017

Available from: 2017-08-01 Created: 2017-08-01 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Korp, H., von Brömssen, K., Flensner, K. K. & Risenfors, S. (2019). Inkludering och likvärdighetför nyanlända elever i grundskolan: en fallstudie i två kommuner. Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkludering och likvärdighetför nyanlända elever i grundskolan: en fallstudie i två kommuner
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst, 2019. p. 152
Keywords
Inkludering, grundskolan, nyanlända
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Educational science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13932 (URN)978-91-88847-37-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2020-09-21
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0127-0999

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