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Hameed, P., Gopal, V., Björklund, S., Ganvir, A., Sen, D., Markocsan, N. & Manivasagam, G. (2019). Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173, 806-815
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 806-815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolution of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings on Ti-6Al-4 V medical implants have always been a challenge to overcome in the field of biomedical industry. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a HAp coating using a novel thermal spray process called axial suspension plasma spraying (SPS), which leads to thin adherent coatings. Two HAp coatings fabricated by APS (P1 and P2) and four SPS HAp coatings (S1, S2, S3 and S4) produced with varying spraying parameters were characterized in terms of (1) microstructure, porosity, hardness, adhesion strength, contact angle and phase purity; (2) corrosion resistance in 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS); (3) in-vitro cell adherence and cell viability using human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Amongst different APS and SPS coatings, P1 and S3 exhibited superior properties. S3 coating developed using SPS exhibited 1.3 times higher adhesion strength when compared to APS coating (P1) and 9.5 times higher corrosion resistance than P1. In addition, both S3 and P1 exhibited comparatively higher biocompatibility as evidenced by the presence of more than 92% viable hMSCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Adhesion; Aluminum alloys; Aluminum coatings; Aluminum corrosion; Atmospheric corrosion; Biocompatibility; Bond strength (materials); Cell adhesion; Cell culture; Contact angle; Corrosion resistance; Corrosion resistant coatings; Corrosive effects; Hydroxyapatite; Mammals; Phase shifters; Plasma jets; Sprayed coatings; Stem cells; Ternary alloys; Thermal spraying; Titanium alloys; Vanadium alloys, Atmospheric plasma spraying; Corrosion studies; hMSCs; Suspension plasma spraying; Ti-6 Al-4 V, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13115 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.10.071 (DOI)000454377300095 ()30551296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055725408 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 26 October 2018.

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Zhang, P., Sadeghi, E., Chen, S., Li, X.-H., Markocsan, N., Joshi, S. V., . . . Peng, R. L. n. (2019). Effects of surface finish on the initial oxidation of HVAF-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 364, 43-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of surface finish on the initial oxidation of HVAF-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings
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2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 364, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

View references (78)Oxide scale formed on HVAF-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings and the effect of surface treatment were investigated by a multi-approach study combining photo-stimulated luminescence, microstructural observation and mass gain. The initial oxidation behaviour of as-sprayed, polished and shot-peened coatings at 1000 °C is studied. Both polished and shot-peened coatings exhibited superior performance due to rapid formation of α-Al 2 O 3 fully covering the coating and suppressing the growth of transient alumina, assisted by a high density of α-Al 2 O 3 nuclei on surface treatment induced defects. Moreover, the fast development of a two-layer alumina scale consisting of an inward-grown inner α-Al 2 O 3 layer and an outer layer transformed from outward-grown transient alumina resulted in a higher oxide growth rate of the as-sprayed coating. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13736 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.02.068 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062231529 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, KME-703
Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-03-21
Ganvir, A., Calinas, R. F., Markocsan, N., Curry, N. & Joshi, S. V. (2019). Experimental visualization of microstructure evolution during suspension plasma spraying of thermal barrier coatings. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 39(2-3), 470-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental visualization of microstructure evolution during suspension plasma spraying of thermal barrier coatings
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 39, no 2-3, p. 470-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the evolution of microstructure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) through a careful experimental study. Understanding the influence of different suspension characteristics such as type of solvent, solid load content and median particle size on the ensuing TBC microstructure, as well as visualizing the early stages of coating build-up leading to formation of a columnar microstructure or otherwise, was of specific interest. Several SPS TBCs with different suspensions were deposited under identical conditions (same substrate, bond coat and plasma spray parameters). The experimental study clearly revealed the important role of suspension characteristics, namely surface tension, density and viscosity, on the final microstructure, with study of its progressive evolution providing invaluable insights. Variations in suspension properties manifest in the form of differences in droplet momentum and trajectory, which are found to be key determinants governing the resulting microstructure (e.g., lamellar/vertically cracked or columnar).

Keywords
Suspension plasma spraying, Thermal barrier coatings, Droplet momentum, Columnar microstructure, Microstructure evolution
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12948 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.09.023 (DOI)000450379400042 ()2-s2.0-85053889817 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västra Götaland, RUN 612-0974-13
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Curry, N., Jonnalagadda, K. P., Peng, R. L., Markocsan, N. & Nylén, P. (2019). Influence of YSZ layer thickness on the durability of gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-layered thermal barrier coatings produced by suspension plasma spray. Surface & Coatings Technology, 357, 456-465
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of YSZ layer thickness on the durability of gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-layered thermal barrier coatings produced by suspension plasma spray
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2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 357, p. 456-465Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, three double layered thermal barrier coating (TBC) variations with different gadolinium zirconate (GZ) and YSZ thickness (400GZ/100YSZ, 250GZ/250YSZ and 100GZ/400YSZ respectively, where the prefixed numbers before GZ and YSZ represent the layer thickness in μm), were produced by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process. The objective was to investigate the influence of YSZ thickness on the thermal conductivity and thermal shock lifetime of the GZ/YSZ double layered TBCs. The as sprayed TBCs were characterized using SEM, XRD and porosity measurements. Thermal diffusivity measurements were made using laser flash analysis and the thermal conductivity of the TBCs was calculated. The double layered TBC with the lowest YSZ (400GZ/100YSZ) thickness showed lower thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. The double layered TBCs were subjected to thermal shock test at a TBC surface temperature of 1350 °C. Results indicate that the TBC with a higher YSZ thickness (100GZ/400YSZ) showed inferior thermal shock lifetime whereas the TBCs with low YSZ thickness showed comparatively higher thermal shock lifetimes. Failure of the TBCs after thermal shock test was analyzed using SEM and XRD to gain further insights.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Gadolinium; Plasma jets; Plasma spraying; Thermal conductivity; Thermal shock; X ray diffraction; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Diffusivity measurements; Double layered; Gadolinium zirconate; Layer thickness; Porosity measurement; Surface temperatures; Suspension plasma sprays; Thermal barrier coating (TBC), Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13106 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.10.046 (DOI)000455691100067 ()2-s2.0-85055204877 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-02-04Bibliographically approved
Aranke, O., Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Li, X.-H. & Kjellman, B. (2019). Microstructural Evolution and Sintering of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print) (1-2), 198-211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural Evolution and Sintering of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings
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2019 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, no 1-2, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suspension plasma spray (SPS) is capable of producing coatings with porous columnar structure, and it is also a much cheaper process compared to the conventionally used electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Although TBCs with a columnar microstructure that are fabricated using SPS have typically lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD, they are used sparingly in the aerospace industry due to their lower fracture toughness and limited lifetime expectancy. Lifetime of TBCs is highly influenced by the topcoat microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the TBCs produced using axial SPS with different process parameters. Influence of the microstructure on lifetime of the coatings was of particular interest, and it was determined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. The effect of sintering on microstructure of the coatings exposed to high temperatures was also investigated. Porosity measurements were taken using image analysis technique, and thermal conductivity of the coatings was determined by laser flash analysis. The results show that axial SPS is a promising method of producing TBCs having various microstructures with good lifetime. Changes in microstructure of topcoat due to sintering were seen evidently in porous coatings, whereas dense topcoats showed good resistance against sintering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASM International, 2019
Keywords
columnar microstructure, sintering, suspension plasma spray, thermal barrier coating, thermal conductivity, thermal cyclic test
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13077 (URN)10.1007/s11666-018-0778-z (DOI)000456599500018 ()2-s2.0-85055871819 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

First Online: 25 October 2018

This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2018 International Thermal Spray Conference, held May 7-10, 2018, in Orlando, Florida, USA, and has been expanded from the original presentation.

Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Zhou, D., Curry, N., Markocsan, N., Nylén, P. & Vassen, R. (2019). Tailored microstructures of gadolinium zirconate/YSZ multi-layered thermal barrier coatings produced by suspension plasma spray: Durability and erosion testing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 264, 283-294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailored microstructures of gadolinium zirconate/YSZ multi-layered thermal barrier coatings produced by suspension plasma spray: Durability and erosion testing
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 264, p. 283-294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work employed an axial suspension plasma spray (SPS) process to deposit two different gadolinium zirconate (GZ) based triple layered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The first was a 'layered' TBC (GZ dense/GZ/YSZ) where the base layer was YSZ, intermediate layer was a relatively porous GZ and the top layer was a relatively dense GZ. The second triple layered TBC was a 'composite' TBC (GZ dense/GZ + YSZ/YSZ) comprising of an YSZ base layer, a GZ + YSZ intermediate layer and a dense GZ top layer. The as sprayed TBCs (layered and composite) were characterized using SEM/EDS and XRD. Two different methods (water intrusion and image analysis) were used to measure the porosity content of the as sprayed TBCs. Fracture toughness measurements were made on the intermediate layers (GZ + YSZ layer of the composite TBC and porous GZ layer of the layered TBC respectively) using micro indentation tests. The GZ + YSZ layer in the composite TBC was shown to have a slightly higher fracture toughness than the relatively porous GZ layer in the layered TBC. Erosion performance of the as sprayed TBCs was evaluated at room temperature where the composite TBC showed higher erosion resistance than the layered TBC. However, in the burner rig test conducted at 1400 °C, the layered TBC showed higher thermal cyclic lifetime than the composite TBC. Failure analysis of the thermally cycled and eroded TBCs was performed using SEM and XRD. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Composite materials, Durability, Erosion, Failure (mechanical), Gadolinium, Plasma jets, Plasma spraying, Thermal barrier coatings, X ray diffraction, Yttria stabilized zirconia, Burner rig, Erosion resistance, Fracture toughness measurements, Gadolinium zirconate, Intermediate layers, Micro-indentation tests, Suspension plasma sprays, Thermal barrier coating (TBCs), Fracture toughness
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13041 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.09.016 (DOI)000450135400028 ()2-s2.0-85053777782 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Sadeghimeresht, E., Reddy, L., Hussein, T., Markocsan, N. & Joshi, S. V. (2018). Chlorine-induced high temperature corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni-based alumina and chromia forming coatings. Corrosion Science, 132(March), 170-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorine-induced high temperature corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni-based alumina and chromia forming coatings
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2018 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 132, no March, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chlorine-induced corrosion of HVAF-sprayed Ni21Cr and Ni5Al coatings was investigated in 5 vol.% O2 + 500vppm HCl + N2 with and without KCl at 600 °C up to 168 h. Both coatings were protective in the absence of KCl. With KCl, Ni21Cr degraded through a two-stage mechanism: 1) formation of K2CrO4 followed by diffusion of Cl− through the oxide grain boundaries to yield chlorine and a non-protective oxide, and 2) inward diffusion of chlorine though defects in the non-protective oxide, leading to breakaway oxidation. Cl−/Cl2 could not diffuse through the protective alumina scale formed on Ni5Al, hence the corrosion resistance increased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Thermal spray coating, NiCr, NiAl, High-Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF), biomass-/waste-fired boiler, fireside corrosion
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11960 (URN)10.1016/j.corsci.2017.12.033 (DOI)000424961000016 ()2-s2.0-85039789597 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, DNR 20160201
Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Gupta, M. K., Markocsan, N., Li, X.-H. & Kjellman, B. (2018). Development of bondcoats for high lifetime suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of bondcoats for high lifetime suspension plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings
2018 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Fabrication of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) seems to be a promising alternative for the industry as SPS TBCs have the potential to provide lower thermal conductivity and longer lifetime than state-of-the-art allowing higher engine efficiency. Further improvements in lifetime of SPS TBCs and fundamental understanding of failure mechanisms in SPS TBCs are necessary for their widespread commercialisation. In this study, the influence of varying topcoat-bondcoat interface topography and bondcoat microstructure on lifetime was investigated. The objective of this work was to gain fundamental understanding of relationships between topcoat-bondcoat interface topography, bondcoat microstructure, and failure mechanisms in SPS TBCs. Seven sets of samples were produced in this study by keeping same bondcoat chemistry but varying feedstock particle size distributions and bondcoat spray processes. The topcoat chemistry and spray parameters were kept identical in all samples. Three-dimensional surface measurements along with scanning electron microscopy images were used to characterise bondcoat surface topography. The effect of varying interface topography and bondcoat microstructure on thermally grown oxide formation, stresses and lifetime was discussed. The results showed that varying bondcoat powder size distribution and spray process can have a significant effect on lifetime of SPS TBCs. Smoother bondcoats seemed to enhance the lifetime in case of SPS TBCs in case of same bondcoat chemistry and similar bondcoat microstructures. When considering the samples investigated in this study, samples with high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) bondcoats resulted in higher lifetime than other samples indicating that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2018
Keywords
Air, Failure (mechanical), Microstructure, Particle size, Plasma jets, Plasma spraying, Scanning electron microscopy, Size distribution, Sprayed coatings, Surface measurement, Surface topography, Thermal conductivity, Thermal spraying, Topography, Bond coats, Interface topography, Lifetime, Suspension plasma spraying, Thermal barrier coating (TBCs), Thermally grown oxide, Thermal barrier coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13178 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.11.013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056458705 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160022
Note

Available online 9 November 2018

Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2019-01-04Bibliographically approved
Sadeghimeresht, E., Markocsan, N., Hussain, T., Huhtakangas, M. & Joshi, S. V. (2018). Effect of SiO2 Dispersion on Chlorine-Induced High-Temperature Corrosion of High-Velocity Air-Fuel Sprayed NiCrMo Coating. Corrosion, 74(9), 984-1000
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of SiO2 Dispersion on Chlorine-Induced High-Temperature Corrosion of High-Velocity Air-Fuel Sprayed NiCrMo Coating
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2018 (English)In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 74, no 9, p. 984-1000Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

NiCrMo coatings with and without dispersed SiO2 were deposited using high-velocity air-fuel technique. Thermogravimetric experiments were conducted in 5% O-2 + 500 vppm HCl + N-2 with and without a KCl deposit at 600 degrees C for up to 168 h. The SiO2-containing coating showed lower weight change as a result of formation of a protective and adherent Cr-rich oxide scale. SiO2 decelerated short-circuit diffusion of Cr3+ through scale's defects, e.g., vacancies, and promoted the selective oxidation of Cr to form the protective Cr-rich oxide scale. Furthermore, the presence of SiO2 led to less subsurface depletion of Cr in the coating, and accordingly less corrosion of the substrate. The formed corrosion product on the SiO2-free coating was highly porous, non-adherent, and thick.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NACE International, 2018
Keywords
Thermal Spray Coating, Chlorine-Induced High Temperature Corrosion, NiCrMo, SiO2Dispersion, HighVelocity Air-Fuel (HVAF), Biomass-/Waste-Fired Boiler
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-12903 (URN)10.5006/2802 (DOI)000442637200005 ()2-s2.0-85052839267 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, RUN 20160201Region Västra Götaland, RUN 2016-01489
Note

Published Online: April 24, 2018

Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Sadeghimeresht, E., Eklund, J., Simon, J. P., Liske, J., Markocsan, N. & Joshi, S. V. (2018). Effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of HVAF-sprayed NiCr and NiCrAlY coatings. Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 69(10), 1431-1440
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of HVAF-sprayed NiCr and NiCrAlY coatings
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2018 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 1431-1440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Isothermal oxidation behavior of NiCr and NiCrAlY coatings deposited onto low alloy 16Mo3 steel by high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) process was investigated in 5% O-2+20% H2O+N-2 at 600 degrees C for 168h. Whereas NiCrAlY showed lower mass gain compared to NiCr, both coatings succeeded in maintaining the integrity with the substrate during the exposure without any breakaway oxidation. A thin Cr-rich oxide scale (Cr2O3) formed on NiCr, and a thin mixed oxide scale (Al2O3 with NiCr2O4) formed on NiCrAlY significantly increasing the oxidation protection in the presence of water vapor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
NiCr, NiCrAlY, oxidation protection, thermal spray coating, water vapor
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Corrosion Engineering
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13036 (URN)10.1002/maco.201710005 (DOI)000446266800012 ()2-s2.0-85047644588 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, RUN 2016-0201Region Västra Götaland, RUN 2016-01489
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-01-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9578-4076

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