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Björklund, Stefan
Publications (10 of 47) Show all publications
Ganvir, A., Björklund, S., Yao, Y., Vadali, S. V., Klement, U. & Joshi, S. V. (2019). A facile approach to deposit graphenaceous composite coatings by suspension plasma spraying. Coatings, 9(3), Article ID 171.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A facile approach to deposit graphenaceous composite coatings by suspension plasma spraying
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2019 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates, for the first time ever, the deposition of graphenaceous composite coatings using an easy, yet robust, suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. As a case study, a composite coating comprising 8 wt.% of yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) and reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on a steel substrate. The coatings were sprayed using an 8YSZ-GO mixed suspension with varied plasma spray parameters. Establishing the possibility of retaining the graphene in a ceramic matrix using SPS was of specific interest. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of graphenaceous material distributed throughout the coating in the 8YSZ matrix. The experimental results discussed in this work confirm that SPS is an immensely attractive pathway to incorporate a graphenaceous material into virtually any matrix material and can potentially have major implications in enabling the deposition of large-area graphene-containing coatings for diverse functional applications. © 2019 by the authors.

National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13737 (URN)10.3390/coatings9030171 (DOI)000465608700002 ()2-s2.0-85062495390 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-11-25
Hameed, P., Gopal, V., Björklund, S., Ganvir, A., Sen, D., Markocsan, N. & Manivasagam, G. (2019). Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173, 806-815
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 806-815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolution of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings on Ti-6Al-4 V medical implants have always been a challenge to overcome in the field of biomedical industry. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a HAp coating using a novel thermal spray process called axial suspension plasma spraying (SPS), which leads to thin adherent coatings. Two HAp coatings fabricated by APS (P1 and P2) and four SPS HAp coatings (S1, S2, S3 and S4) produced with varying spraying parameters were characterized in terms of (1) microstructure, porosity, hardness, adhesion strength, contact angle and phase purity; (2) corrosion resistance in 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS); (3) in-vitro cell adherence and cell viability using human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Amongst different APS and SPS coatings, P1 and S3 exhibited superior properties. S3 coating developed using SPS exhibited 1.3 times higher adhesion strength when compared to APS coating (P1) and 9.5 times higher corrosion resistance than P1. In addition, both S3 and P1 exhibited comparatively higher biocompatibility as evidenced by the presence of more than 92% viable hMSCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Adhesion; Aluminum alloys; Aluminum coatings; Aluminum corrosion; Atmospheric corrosion; Biocompatibility; Bond strength (materials); Cell adhesion; Cell culture; Contact angle; Corrosion resistance; Corrosion resistant coatings; Corrosive effects; Hydroxyapatite; Mammals; Phase shifters; Plasma jets; Sprayed coatings; Stem cells; Ternary alloys; Thermal spraying; Titanium alloys; Vanadium alloys, Atmospheric plasma spraying; Corrosion studies; hMSCs; Suspension plasma spraying; Ti-6 Al-4 V, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13115 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.10.071 (DOI)000454377300095 ()30551296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055725408 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 26 October 2018.

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Curry, N., Björklund, S., Markocsan, N. & Joshi, S. V. (2019). Durability of Gadolinium Zirconate/YSZ Double-Layered Thermal Barrier Coatings under Different Thermal Cyclic Test Conditions. Materials, 12(14), Article ID E2238.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Durability of Gadolinium Zirconate/YSZ Double-Layered Thermal Barrier Coatings under Different Thermal Cyclic Test Conditions
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 14, article id E2238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Higher durability in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is constantly sought to enhance the service life of gas turbine engine components such as blades and vanes. In this study, three double layered gadolinium zirconate (GZ)-on-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBC variants with varying individual layer thickness but identical total thickness produced by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process were evaluated. The objective was to investigate the role of YSZ layer thickness on the durability of GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions i.e., thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) at 1100 °C and a burner rig test (BRT) at a surface temperature of 1400 °C, respectively. Microstructural characterization was performed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and porosity content was measured using image analysis technique. Results reveal that the durability of double-layered TBCs decreased with YSZ thickness under both TCF and BRT test conditions. The TBCs were analyzed by SEM to investigate microstructural evolution as well as failure modes during TCF and BRT test conditions. It was observed that the failure modes varied with test conditions, with all the three double-layered TBC variants showing failure in the TGO (thermally grown oxide) during the TCF test and in the ceramic GZ top coat close to the GZ/YSZ interface during BRT. Furthermore, porosity analysis of the as-sprayed and TCF failed TBCs revealed differences in sintering behavior for GZ and YSZ. The findings from this work provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for failure of SPS processed double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions.

Keywords
burner rig test, double-layered TBC, gadolinium zirconate, suspension plasma spray, thermal cyclic fatigue, yttria stabilized zirconia
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14438 (URN)10.3390/ma12142238 (DOI)000480454300026 ()31336713 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070469165 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, Dnr-20140130
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-15
Mahade, S., Narayan, K., Govindarajan, S., Björklund, S., Curry, N. & Joshi, S. V. (2019). Exploiting Suspension Plasma Spraying to Deposit Wear-Resistant Carbide Coatings.. Materials, 12(15), Article ID E2344.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting Suspension Plasma Spraying to Deposit Wear-Resistant Carbide Coatings.
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 15, article id E2344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium- and chromium-based carbides are attractive coating materials to impart wear resistance. Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is a relatively new thermal spray process which has shown a facile ability to use sub-micron and nano-sized feedstock to deposit high-performance coatings. The specific novelty of this work lies in the processing of fine-sized titanium and chromium carbides (TiC and Cr3C2) in the form of aqueous suspensions to fabricate wear-resistant coatings by SPS. The resulting coatings were characterized by surface morphology, microstructure, phase constitution, and micro-hardness. The abrasive, erosive, and sliding wear performance of the SPS-processed TiC and Cr3C2 coatings was also evaluated. The results amply demonstrate that SPS is a promising route to manufacture superior wear-resistant carbide-based coatings with minimal in situ oxidation during their processing.

Keywords
chromium carbide, suspension plasma spray, titanium carbide, wear
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14437 (URN)10.3390/ma12152344 (DOI)000482576900005 ()31344804 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070407089 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-15
Kiilakoski, J., Trache, R., Björklund, S., Joshi, S. V. & Vuoristo, P. (2019). Process Parameter Impact on Suspension-HVOF-Sprayed Cr2O3 Coatings. Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process Parameter Impact on Suspension-HVOF-Sprayed Cr2O3 Coatings
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2019 (English)In: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is commonly used as an atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) coating from powder feedstock in applications requiring resistance to sliding wear and corrosion, as well as amenability to texturing, e.g., in anilox rolls. Recently, high-velocity oxy-fuel spray methods involving suspension feedstock have been considered an extremely promising alternative to produce denser and more homogeneous chromium oxide coatings with lower as-sprayed surface roughness, higher hardness and potentially superior wear performance compared to conventional APS-sprayed coatings. In this study, the impact of process parameters namely auxiliary air cleaning nozzles and a transverse air curtain on suspension high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed Cr2O3 suspensions is presented. The produced coatings are characterized for their microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance by cavitation erosion. The results reveal the importance of optimized air nozzles and air curtain to achieve a vastly improved coating structure and performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Cr2O3, influence of spray parameters, mechanical properties, SHVOF, suspension spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14703 (URN)10.1007/s11666-019-00940-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074710199 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funders: K.F. and Maria Dunderberg Foundation’ and Business Finland (Finnish innovation funding, trade, investment and travel promotion organization

Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2019-12-02Bibliographically approved
Silveira, L. L., Pukasiewicz, A. G., de Aguiar, D. J., Zara, A. J. & Björklund, S. (2019). Study of the corrosion and cavitation resistance of HVOF and HVAF FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 374, 910-922
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of the corrosion and cavitation resistance of HVOF and HVAF FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB coatings
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2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 374, p. 910-922Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cavitation and corrosion on hydrodynamic components and systems reduces the operational efficiency. The use of wear resistant coatings has been studied as a solution to the problem of corrosion and cavitation in industrial environments. The high velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) can produce coatings with high density and bond strength. High velocity air-fuel (HVAF) is an alternative process, which can deposit coatings with higher velocity and lower temperatures, compared to the HVOF process, resulting in lower oxide content. This paper analyzes the HVOF and HVAF processes to deposit FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB coatings, comparing their cavitation and corrosion resistance. HVAF coatings presented lower porosity and oxide levels, as well as higher hardness values. The HVAF process presented better cavitation and corrosion resistance, due to lower porosity and oxide contents of the coatings. The amount of oxides and pores in the coatings was crucial in their corrosive behavior, by facilitating the penetration of the chloride ions through the pores, leading to a higher corrosion rate and pitting formation. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Air; Cavitation; Chlorine compounds; Chromium compounds; Corrosion; Corrosion rate; Corrosion resistance; Deposits; Fuels; HVOF thermal spraying; Iron alloys; Manganese compounds; Nickel compounds; Pitting; Porosity; Silicon compounds; Sprayed coatings, Fe-based alloys; High velocity air fuels; High velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF); HVAF; HVOF; Hydrodynamic component; Industrial environments; Operational efficiencies, Corrosion resistant coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology; ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14463 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.06.076 (DOI)000486360000090 ()2-s2.0-85068410167 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funders: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES)

Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Ruelle, C., Curry, N., Holmberg, J., Björklund, S., Markocsan, N. & Nylén, P. (2019). Understanding the effect of material composition and microstructural design on the erosion behavior of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. Applied Surface Science, 488, 170-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the effect of material composition and microstructural design on the erosion behavior of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 488, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, three different TBC compositions comprising of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (8YSZ), yttria fully stabilized zirconia (48YSZ) and gadolinium zirconate (GZ) respectively, were processed by suspension plasma spray (SPS) to obtain columnar microstructured TBCs. Additionally, for comparison, lamellar microstructured, 7YSZ TBC was deposited by air plasma spray (APS) process. SEM analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure and white light interferometry was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the as-sprayed TBCs. Porosity measurements were made using water intrusion and image analysis methods and it was observed that the SPS-YSZ and APS-YSZ TBCs showed higher porosity content than SPS-GZ and SPS-48YSZ. The as-sprayed TBC variations (APS-YSZ, SPS-YSZ, SPS-GZ, and SPS-48YSZ) were subjected to erosion test. Results indicate that the erosion resistance of APS-YSZ TBC was inferior to the SPS-YSZ, SPS-GZ and SPS-48YSZ TBCs respectively. Among the SPS processed TBCs, SPS-YSZ showed the highest erosion resistance whereas the SPS-48YSZ showed the lowest erosion resistance. SEM analysis of the eroded TBCs (cross section and surface morphology) was performed to gain further insights on their erosion behavior. Based on the erosion results and post erosion SEM analysis, erosion mechanisms for splat like microstructured APS TBC and columnar microstructured SPS TBCs were proposed. The findings from this work provide new insights on the erosion mechanisms of columnar microstructured TBCs and lamellar microstructured TBCs deposited by plasma spray. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Erosion; Microstructure; Morphology; Plasma jets; Porosity; Sprayed coatings; Surface morphology; Thermal barrier coatings; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Atmospheric plasma spray; Gadolinium zirconate; Stabilized zirconia; Suspension plasma sprays; Yttria partially stabilized zirconia, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13987 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.245 (DOI)000472476200020 ()2-s2.0-85066427612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Ekberg, J., Klement, U. & Björklund, S. (2018). Analysis of single splats produced by axial suspension plasma spraying. Surface Engineering, 34(5), 407-411
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of single splats produced by axial suspension plasma spraying
2018 (English)In: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 407-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) is a relatively new, innovative technique with which microstructures have been produced that are similar to the ones produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. They have a columnar structure and consist of nm- and µm-sized pores. However, so far the formation of the microstructure is not fully understood because fragmentation and vaporisation of the liquid significantly affects the deposition process. Analysis of single splats can provide important information on the phenomena controlling the coating formation process and the final coating properties. Therefore, the present study aims at providing first results of 8 wt-% yttria-stabilised zirconia single splats sprayed onto a steel substrate by use of ASPS. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to characterise the splats with respect to appearance, shape, and size distribution. © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute

Keywords
Atomic force microscopy; Coatings; Deposition; Microstructure; Physical vapor deposition; Plasma jets; Scanning electron microscopy; Thermal barrier coatings; Vapor deposition; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium alloys; Zirconia, Coating properties; Columnar structures; Deposition process; Electron beam-physical vapor deposition; Innovative techniques; Single splats; Suspension plasma spraying; Suspension plasma sprays, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11888 (URN)10.1080/02670844.2017.1309516 (DOI)000426112000009 ()2-s2.0-85017106487 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 04 Apr 2017

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Björklund, S., Goel, S. & Joshi, S. V. (2018). Function-dependent coating architectures by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying: Injector design, processing and concept validation. Materials & design, 142, 56-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Function-dependent coating architectures by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying: Injector design, processing and concept validation
2018 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 142, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The attractive properties achieved by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS), combined with the availability of high throughput capable plasma spray systems that permit axial feeding, provide encouragement to explore use of suspensions for next generation functional applications. This paper deals with realization of coatings with various pre-determined function-dependent architectures by employing a hybrid powder-suspension feedstock. Some illustrative application-relevant coating architecture designs are discussed, along with the specific benefits that can accrue by deploying a multi-scale powder-suspension feedstock combination. An elegant feedstock delivery arrangement to enable either simultaneous or sequential feeding of powders and suspensions to enable convenient processing of coatings with desired architectures is presented. As proof-of-concept, deposition of layered, composite and functionally graded coatings using the above system is also demonstrated using appropriate case studies

Keywords
Suspension, Hybrid feedstock, Layered, Composite, Functionally graded, Coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11993 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.002 (DOI)000425878200006 ()2-s2.0-85040645081 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 4 January 2018

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Kuhn, J., Gupta, M. K., Kesler, O. & Björklund, S. (2018). The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), F693-F701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. F693-F701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid oxide cell electrolytes fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are frequently found to have considerable gas leak rates.Electrode surface roughness is known to have an influence on electrolyte leak rates. A jet of high velocity air, produced with an airknife, was aimed at the plasma plume during fuel electrode deposition to reduce the surface roughness prior to electrolyte deposition.The resulting fuel electrode masses, electrode compositions, and electrode surface roughnesses were measured for varying air knifeinlet pressures. Surface asperity populations and maximum heights were significantly reduced using air knife pressures of >6 barat the expense of deposition efficiency. The nickel volume fraction in the fuel electrode increased slightly with increasing air knifepressure. Open circuit voltages were larger on the smoother fuel electrodes that were produced at higher air knife pressures, but nosignificant effect of air knife pressure on cell power density could be discerned.© 2018 The Electrochemical Society

Keywords
air knife, solid oxide cell, surface roughness
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13050 (URN)10.1149/2.1141809jes (DOI)2-s2.0-85049345029 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funders: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
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