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Björklund, Stefan
Publications (10 of 43) Show all publications
Ganvir, A., Björklund, S., Yao, Y., Vadali, S. V., Klement, U. & Joshi, S. V. (2019). A facile approach to deposit graphenaceous composite coatings by suspension plasma spraying. Coatings, 9(3), Article ID 171.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A facile approach to deposit graphenaceous composite coatings by suspension plasma spraying
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2019 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates, for the first time ever, the deposition of graphenaceous composite coatings using an easy, yet robust, suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. As a case study, a composite coating comprising 8 wt.% of yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) and reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on a steel substrate. The coatings were sprayed using an 8YSZ-GO mixed suspension with varied plasma spray parameters. Establishing the possibility of retaining the graphene in a ceramic matrix using SPS was of specific interest. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of graphenaceous material distributed throughout the coating in the 8YSZ matrix. The experimental results discussed in this work confirm that SPS is an immensely attractive pathway to incorporate a graphenaceous material into virtually any matrix material and can potentially have major implications in enabling the deposition of large-area graphene-containing coatings for diverse functional applications. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2019
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13737 (URN)10.3390/coatings9030171 (DOI)000465608700002 ()2-s2.0-85062495390 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-05-10
Hameed, P., Gopal, V., Björklund, S., Ganvir, A., Sen, D., Markocsan, N. & Manivasagam, G. (2019). Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173, 806-815
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic applications
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 806-815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolution of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings on Ti-6Al-4 V medical implants have always been a challenge to overcome in the field of biomedical industry. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a HAp coating using a novel thermal spray process called axial suspension plasma spraying (SPS), which leads to thin adherent coatings. Two HAp coatings fabricated by APS (P1 and P2) and four SPS HAp coatings (S1, S2, S3 and S4) produced with varying spraying parameters were characterized in terms of (1) microstructure, porosity, hardness, adhesion strength, contact angle and phase purity; (2) corrosion resistance in 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS); (3) in-vitro cell adherence and cell viability using human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Amongst different APS and SPS coatings, P1 and S3 exhibited superior properties. S3 coating developed using SPS exhibited 1.3 times higher adhesion strength when compared to APS coating (P1) and 9.5 times higher corrosion resistance than P1. In addition, both S3 and P1 exhibited comparatively higher biocompatibility as evidenced by the presence of more than 92% viable hMSCs. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Adhesion; Aluminum alloys; Aluminum coatings; Aluminum corrosion; Atmospheric corrosion; Biocompatibility; Bond strength (materials); Cell adhesion; Cell culture; Contact angle; Corrosion resistance; Corrosion resistant coatings; Corrosive effects; Hydroxyapatite; Mammals; Phase shifters; Plasma jets; Sprayed coatings; Stem cells; Ternary alloys; Thermal spraying; Titanium alloys; Vanadium alloys, Atmospheric plasma spraying; Corrosion studies; hMSCs; Suspension plasma spraying; Ti-6 Al-4 V, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13115 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.10.071 (DOI)000454377300095 ()30551296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055725408 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 26 October 2018.

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Ruelle, C., Curry, N., Holmberg, J., Björklund, S., Markocsan, N. & Nylén, P. (2019). Understanding the effect of material composition and microstructural design on the erosion behavior of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. Applied Surface Science, 488, 170-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the effect of material composition and microstructural design on the erosion behavior of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 488, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, three different TBC compositions comprising of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (8YSZ), yttria fully stabilized zirconia (48YSZ) and gadolinium zirconate (GZ) respectively, were processed by suspension plasma spray (SPS) to obtain columnar microstructured TBCs. Additionally, for comparison, lamellar microstructured, 7YSZ TBC was deposited by air plasma spray (APS) process. SEM analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure and white light interferometry was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the as-sprayed TBCs. Porosity measurements were made using water intrusion and image analysis methods and it was observed that the SPS-YSZ and APS-YSZ TBCs showed higher porosity content than SPS-GZ and SPS-48YSZ. The as-sprayed TBC variations (APS-YSZ, SPS-YSZ, SPS-GZ, and SPS-48YSZ) were subjected to erosion test. Results indicate that the erosion resistance of APS-YSZ TBC was inferior to the SPS-YSZ, SPS-GZ and SPS-48YSZ TBCs respectively. Among the SPS processed TBCs, SPS-YSZ showed the highest erosion resistance whereas the SPS-48YSZ showed the lowest erosion resistance. SEM analysis of the eroded TBCs (cross section and surface morphology) was performed to gain further insights on their erosion behavior. Based on the erosion results and post erosion SEM analysis, erosion mechanisms for splat like microstructured APS TBC and columnar microstructured SPS TBCs were proposed. The findings from this work provide new insights on the erosion mechanisms of columnar microstructured TBCs and lamellar microstructured TBCs deposited by plasma spray. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Erosion; Microstructure; Morphology; Plasma jets; Porosity; Sprayed coatings; Surface morphology; Thermal barrier coatings; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Atmospheric plasma spray; Gadolinium zirconate; Stabilized zirconia; Suspension plasma sprays; Yttria partially stabilized zirconia, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13987 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.245 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066427612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Ekberg, J., Klement, U. & Björklund, S. (2018). Analysis of single splats produced by axial suspension plasma spraying. Surface Engineering, 34(5), 407-411
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of single splats produced by axial suspension plasma spraying
2018 (English)In: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 407-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) is a relatively new, innovative technique with which microstructures have been produced that are similar to the ones produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. They have a columnar structure and consist of nm- and µm-sized pores. However, so far the formation of the microstructure is not fully understood because fragmentation and vaporisation of the liquid significantly affects the deposition process. Analysis of single splats can provide important information on the phenomena controlling the coating formation process and the final coating properties. Therefore, the present study aims at providing first results of 8 wt-% yttria-stabilised zirconia single splats sprayed onto a steel substrate by use of ASPS. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to characterise the splats with respect to appearance, shape, and size distribution. © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute

Keywords
Atomic force microscopy; Coatings; Deposition; Microstructure; Physical vapor deposition; Plasma jets; Scanning electron microscopy; Thermal barrier coatings; Vapor deposition; Yttria stabilized zirconia; Yttrium alloys; Zirconia, Coating properties; Columnar structures; Deposition process; Electron beam-physical vapor deposition; Innovative techniques; Single splats; Suspension plasma spraying; Suspension plasma sprays, Plasma spraying
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11888 (URN)10.1080/02670844.2017.1309516 (DOI)000426112000009 ()2-s2.0-85017106487 (Scopus ID)
Note

Published online: 04 Apr 2017

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Björklund, S., Goel, S. & Joshi, S. V. (2018). Function-dependent coating architectures by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying: Injector design, processing and concept validation. Materials & design, 142, 56-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Function-dependent coating architectures by hybrid powder-suspension plasma spraying: Injector design, processing and concept validation
2018 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 142, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The attractive properties achieved by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS), combined with the availability of high throughput capable plasma spray systems that permit axial feeding, provide encouragement to explore use of suspensions for next generation functional applications. This paper deals with realization of coatings with various pre-determined function-dependent architectures by employing a hybrid powder-suspension feedstock. Some illustrative application-relevant coating architecture designs are discussed, along with the specific benefits that can accrue by deploying a multi-scale powder-suspension feedstock combination. An elegant feedstock delivery arrangement to enable either simultaneous or sequential feeding of powders and suspensions to enable convenient processing of coatings with desired architectures is presented. As proof-of-concept, deposition of layered, composite and functionally graded coatings using the above system is also demonstrated using appropriate case studies

Keywords
Suspension, Hybrid feedstock, Layered, Composite, Functionally graded, Coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11993 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.002 (DOI)000425878200006 ()2-s2.0-85040645081 (Scopus ID)
Note

Available online 4 January 2018

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-02-18Bibliographically approved
Kuhn, J., Gupta, M. K., Kesler, O. & Björklund, S. (2018). The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), F693-F701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Fuel Electrode Roughness on the Properties of Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. F693-F701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solid oxide cell electrolytes fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are frequently found to have considerable gas leak rates.Electrode surface roughness is known to have an influence on electrolyte leak rates. A jet of high velocity air, produced with an airknife, was aimed at the plasma plume during fuel electrode deposition to reduce the surface roughness prior to electrolyte deposition.The resulting fuel electrode masses, electrode compositions, and electrode surface roughnesses were measured for varying air knifeinlet pressures. Surface asperity populations and maximum heights were significantly reduced using air knife pressures of >6 barat the expense of deposition efficiency. The nickel volume fraction in the fuel electrode increased slightly with increasing air knifepressure. Open circuit voltages were larger on the smoother fuel electrodes that were produced at higher air knife pressures, but nosignificant effect of air knife pressure on cell power density could be discerned.© 2018 The Electrochemical Society

Keywords
air knife, solid oxide cell, surface roughness
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13050 (URN)10.1149/2.1141809jes (DOI)2-s2.0-85049345029 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funders: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Goel, S., Björklund, S., Curry, N., Wiklund, U. & Joshi, S. V. (2017). Axial suspension plasma spraying of Al2O3 coatings for superior tribological properties. Surface & Coatings Technology, 315, 80-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Axial suspension plasma spraying of Al2O3 coatings for superior tribological properties
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2017 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 315, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suspension plasma spray is a relatively new thermal spray technique which enables feeding of fine powder to produce advanced coatings for varied applications. This work investigates the difference in structure and performance of Al2O3 coatings manufactured using conventional micron-sized powder feedstock and a suspension of sub-micron to few micron sized powder. Axial injection was implemented for deposition in both cases. The effect of feedstock size and processing on the tribological performance of the two coatings was of specific interest. The coatings were characterized by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-hardness and scratch resistance testing, and their dry sliding wear performance evaluated. The suspension sprayed coatings yielded significantly higher scratch resistance, lower friction coefficient and reduced wear rate compared to conventional coatings. The improved tribological behaviour of the former is attributable to finer porosity, smaller splat sizes, and improved interlamellar bonding. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Atmospheric plasma spray; Suspension plasma spray; Axial injection; Alumina; Coating; Microstructure; Micro-hardness; Scratch; Wear
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-10931 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.02.025 (DOI)000399268100009 ()2-s2.0-85013027004 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Silveira, L. L., Pukasiewicz, A. G., Björklund, S., Nylén, P. & Zara, A. J. (2017). Comparative Study of the Corrosion and Cavitation Resistance of HVOF and HVAF FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB Coatings. In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference & Exposition (ITSC 2017): . Paper presented at International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition, ITSC 2017, Dusseldorf, Germany, 7-9 June, 2017 (pp. 675-680). New York: Curran Associates, Inc, 2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Study of the Corrosion and Cavitation Resistance of HVOF and HVAF FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB Coatings
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference & Exposition (ITSC 2017), New York: Curran Associates, Inc , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 675-680Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cavitation and corrosion on hydrodynamic components and systems reduces the operational efficiency. The use of wear resistant coatings have been studied as a solution to the problem of corrosion and cavitation in the industrial environment. Thermal spray processes are recognized as excellent technique to deposit coatings. The high velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) can produce high density and bond strength coatings. High velocity air-fuel process (HVAF) is an alternative process, shown to be superior regarding corrosion protection and production costs. HVAF can deposit coating with shorter dwell time and lower temperature, producing coating with lower oxide content This paper presents the use of HVOF and HVAF process to deposit FeCrMnSiNi and FeCrMnSiB coatings, studying the resistance against corrosion and cavitation in comparison to 316L HVOF coating. Microstructure was analyzed by XRD, microscopic means and mechanical testing. Cavitation and corrosion behavior of the coatings were also studied comparatively. HVAF coatings presented lower porosity and oxide levels, as well as higher hardness values, compared with the coatings deposited by HVOF process. The HVAF process presented better cavitation resistance than HVOF coatings. The FeCrMnSiNi HVAF coating had the best corrosion protection performance between the developed alloys. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Curran Associates, Inc, 2017
Keywords
Air, Boron, Cavitation, Corrosion resistance, Corrosive effects, Deposits, Fuels, HVOF thermal spraying, Iron alloys, Mechanical testing, Protective coatings, Sprayed coatings, Thermal spraying, Corrosion protection performance, Fe-based alloys, High velocity air fuels, High velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF), Hydrodynamic component, Industrial environments, Operational efficiencies, Wear-resistant coating, Corrosion resistant coatings
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering; Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13055 (URN)2-s2.0-85047484038 (Scopus ID)9781510858220 (ISBN)
Conference
International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition, ITSC 2017, Dusseldorf, Germany, 7-9 June, 2017
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Jonnalagadda, K. P., Curry, N., Li, X.-H., Björklund, S., Markocsan, N., . . . Peng, R. L. (2017). Engineered architectures of gadolinium zirconate based thermal barrier coatings subjected to hot corrosion test. Surface & Coatings Technology, 328, 361-370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineered architectures of gadolinium zirconate based thermal barrier coatings subjected to hot corrosion test
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2017 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 328, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as a promising top coat candidate for high temperature TBC applications. Suspension plasma spray has shown the capability to generate a wide range of microstructures including the desirable columnar microstructure. In this study, two different TBC architectures were deposited using the axial suspension plasma spray. The first variation was a triple layered TBC comprising of thin YSZ base layer beneath a relatively porous GZ intermediate layer and a dense GZ top layer. The second variation was a composite TBC architecture of GZ and YSZ comprising of thin YSZ base layer and GZ + YSZ top layer. Cross sectional SEM analysis of the layered and composite TBCs revealed a columnar microstructure. The porosity content of the deposited TBCs was measured using two methods (Image Analysis and Water Intrusion). The as-sprayed TBCs were exposed at 900 °C for 8 h to a corrosive salt environment consisting of a mixture of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. XRD analysis on the as-corroded TBCs top surface showed the presence of gadolinium vanadate in both the layered and the composite TBCs. SEM/EDS analysis of the top surface and the cross-section of the layered and composite TBCs after hot corrosion test revealed the infiltration of the molten salts through the columnar gaps. The composite TBC showed a lower hot corrosion induced damage compared to the layered TBC where a considerable spallation was observed.

Keywords
Gadolinium zirconate, Hot corrosion, Suspension plasma spray, Columnar microstructure
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11588 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.09.005 (DOI)000413376900040 ()2-s2.0-85028920767 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
Mahade, S., Curry, N., Björklund, S., Markocsan, N. & Nylén, P. (2017). Engineered thermal barrier coatings deposited by suspension plasma spray. Materials letters (General ed.), 209, 517-521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineered thermal barrier coatings deposited by suspension plasma spray
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2017 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 209, p. 517-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is susceptible to CMAS (Calcium Magnesium Alumino Silicates) attack at high temperatures (>1200 °C) which limits its durability. New ceramic materials which can overcome these high temperature challenges are highly desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of depositing two variations of three ceramic layered thermal barrier coatings. The first variation comprised of yttria as the top ceramic layer with gadolinium zirconate (GZ) as the intermediate layer and YSZ as the base layer. The second variation comprised of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) as the top layer with gadolinium zirconate as the intermediate layer and YSZ as the base layer. Microstructural analysis of the as sprayed three layered TBCs were performed by SEM/EDS. Columnar microstructures with a relatively dense top layer were obtained in both the variations. The porosity content of the TBCs was measured by water intrusion and image analysis methods. Phase composition of each layer of the as sprayed TBCs was analyzed using XRD. YAG showed an amorphous phase whereas GZ showed a cubic defect fluorite phase and tetragonal phase was observed in YSZ. In the case of yttria, monoclinic and cubic phases were observed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Aluminum; Ceramic materials; Coatings; Gadolinium; Garnets; Plasma jets; Plasma spraying; Silicates; Thermal barrier coatings; Yttrium; Yttrium oxide; Zirconia, Columnar microstructures; Gadolinium zirconate; Image analysis method; Intermediate layers; Microstructural analysis; Suspension plasma sprays; Yttria-stabilized zirconias (YSZ); Yttrium aluminum garnet, Yttria stabilized zirconia
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-11613 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2017.08.096 (DOI)000413124300131 ()2-s2.0-85028409787 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140130
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
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