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Teixeira, F. R., Scotti, F. M., Jorge, V. L. & Scotti, A. (2023). Combined effect of the interlayer temperature with travel speed on features of thin wall WAAM under two cooling approaches. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 126, 273-289
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Combined effect of the interlayer temperature with travel speed on features of thin wall WAAM under two cooling approaches
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 126, s. 273-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents the evaluation of the interlayer temperature (IT) with travel speed (TS) combined effect for a given wire feed speed (WFS) on operational, geometrical, and metallurgical features of thin walls with the same width deposited by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) with a low alloy steel, using or not active cooling. A preliminary experimental design was carried out to define a range of IT that could prevent the molten pool from running down and, then, be used in the main experimental design. The main tests were planned and performed to find different IT and TS combinations for a given WFS capable of depositing walls with the same target effective wall width. After selecting the parameters, six walls were deposited, three under natural cooling (NC) and three under near immersion active cooling (NIAC). A more significant temperature variability along the layer length (ΔT/ΔLL) is observed in increasing IT-TS combination and under NIAC. Regardless of the cooling approach, a worse surface aspect was observed with lower IT and TS. However, NC or NIAC do not affect the wall width (effective or external) or the layer height. On the other hand, they are affected by the IT with TS combination. A shorter production time was obtained on the walls with NIAC and higher IT-TS. No marked microstructural differences were observed comparing the walls, regardless of the cooling approach. However, microstructure tempering (hardness reduction) was observed in the walls deposited with NC using higher IT levels.  

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023
Emneord
Alloy steel; Statistics; Thin walled structures; Active cooling; Geometrical feature and surface finishing; Geometrical features; Geometrical surfaces; Idle time; Natural cooling; Surface finishing; Travel speed; Wire arc; Wire arc additive manufacturing; Cooling
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19824 (URN)10.1007/s00170-023-11105-w (DOI)000938815200003 ()2-s2.0-85148599147 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

CC-BY 4.0

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-11-08 Laget: 2023-11-08 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Högström, M., Fadaei, A., Rahimi, A., Li, P., Igestrand, M., Andersson, J. & Scotti, A. (2023). Proposal and Assessment of a Multiple Cycle-Continuous Cooling Transformation (MC-CCT) Diagram for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Thin Walls. Metals, 13(9), Article ID 1533.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Proposal and Assessment of a Multiple Cycle-Continuous Cooling Transformation (MC-CCT) Diagram for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Thin Walls
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id 1533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of base metals are common in welding. They can be built using physical or numerical simulations, each with advantages and limitations. However, those are not usual for weld metal, considering its variable composition due to the dilution of the weld into the base metal. Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is a distinctive casein which the interest in materials comparable with weld composition raises attention to estimating their mechanical properties. Notwithstanding, this concept is still not used in WAAM. Therefore, the aim of this work was to address a methodology to raise MC-CCT (Multiple Cycle ContinuousCooling Transformation) diagrams for WAAM by combining physical and numerical simulations. A high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) feedstock (a combination of a wire and a shielding gas) was used as a case study. To keep CCT as representative as possible, the typical multiple thermal cycles for additive manufacturing thin walls were determined and replicated in physical simulations (Gleeble dilatometry). The start and end transformations were determined by the differential linear variation approach for each thermal cycle. Microstructure analyses and hardness were used to characterise the product after the multiple cycles. The same CCT diagram was raised by a commercial numerical simulation package to determine the shape of the transformation curves. A range of austenitic grain sizes was scanned for the curve position matching the experimental results. Combining the experimental data and numerically simulated curves made estimating the final CCT diagram possible.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2023
Emneord
T diagram; WAAM; physical simulation; numerical simulation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21100 (URN)10.3390/met13091533 (DOI)001075952000001 ()2-s2.0-85172810067 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation, 2018/1890 B20
Merknad

CC-BY 4.0

Funding: The Knowledge Foundation funded this research via the TAPERTECH: TAiloring of high-PERformance parts through laser and arc additive manufacturing TECHhnologies project (Referencenumber: 2018/1890 B20).

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-20 Laget: 2023-12-20 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Jorge, V. L., Teixeira, F. R., Scotti, A., Scotti, F. M. & Siewert, E. (2023). The significance of supplementary shielding in WAAM of aluminium thin walls. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 106, 520-536
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The significance of supplementary shielding in WAAM of aluminium thin walls
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 106, s. 520-536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing) of aluminium requires special operational care to avoid problems such as instabilities, contamination or porosities. This work aims at verifying whether supplementary shielding gas can affect the WAAM performance when building Al alloy thin walls, in terms of metal transfer, porosity, superficial finishing, and geometrical and metallurgical features. Thin walls were manufactured with and without supplementary shielding (ultra-pure Ar). A dedicated nozzle was designed in-house to provide additional protection against the reaction with surrounding atmospheric gases. Pure Ar and two Ar-based commercial shielding gases with different additives were employed to make the conclusions more sustainable. It was possible to conclude that supplementary shielding leads to better metal transfer regularity, cleaner lateral and surface, a shinier top layer appearance, and a slight trend to higher microhardness. On the other hand, it does not affect porosity after layer depositions, wall geometry (the total and effective layer width, layer height, and surface waviness of the walls), and microstructures. Finally, regarding the performance of shielding gases, there is no evidence of any effect from the supplementary shielding, since this approach improved the process operationality with the three different shielding gases but did not change their individual tendencies. 

Emneord
WAAM, Aluminium alloy, Thin wall, Supplementary shielding gas, Soot, Metal transfer, Dimension control
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20889 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2023.09.063 (DOI)001105311100001 ()2-s2.0-85174027123 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

CC BY 4.0

Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-28 Laget: 2023-12-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-12-28
Ferreira, R. P., Vilarinho, L. O. & Scotti, A. (2022). Development and implementation of a software for wire arc additive manufacturing preprocessing planning: trajectory planning and machine code generation. Welding in the World
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development and implementation of a software for wire arc additive manufacturing preprocessing planning: trajectory planning and machine code generation
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

To overcome a shortage of flexible and low-cost solutions for wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) preprocessing, this work´s objective was to develop and validate an in-house computational programme in an open-source environment for WAAM preprocessing planning. Algorithms for reading STL (stereolithography) files and implementing rotation, slicing, trajectory planning, and machine code generation were elaborated and implemented in the Scilab environment (free and open-source). A graphical interface was developed to facilitate user interaction, with 5 options for path planning. The functionality of each work step is detailed. For validation of the software, single and multiple-layer prints, with different geometrical complexity and printing challenges, were built in a CNC table geared by the generated machine code. The validation criteria were deposition imperfection, morphological, and dimensional tolerances. The outputs showed that the parts were successfully printed. Therefore, this work demonstrates that Scilab provides the necessary resources for companies and universities to implement and/or develop algorithms for planning and generating trajectories for WAAM. Moreover, emerging ideas can be reasonably easily implemented in such software, not always possible in commercial packages. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022
Emneord
Additives; Motion planning; Open source software; Open systems; Trajectories; Wire, Code programming; G codes; Machine codes; Open-source code; Open-source code programming; Preprocessing planning; Trajectory generation; Trajectory Planning; Wire arc; Wire arc additive manufacturing, 3D printers
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18172 (URN)10.1007/s40194-021-01233-w (DOI)000745381300006 ()2-s2.0-85123258338 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Open access funding provided by University West. This work was partially funded by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq (grant number 302863/2016–8) and PETROBRAS (project number 23117.018175/2019–80).

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-03-24 Laget: 2022-03-24 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-24
Scotti, A., Batista, M. A. & Eshagh, M. (2022). Inaccuracy in arc power calculation through a product of voltage and current averages. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 44(1), 1-9, Article ID 11.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Inaccuracy in arc power calculation through a product of voltage and current averages
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 1-9, artikkel-id 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
Abstract [en]

Power is an indirect measurand, determined by processing voltage and current analogue signals through calculations. Using arc welding as a case study, the objective of this work was to bring up subsidies for power calculation. Based on the defnitions of correlation and covariance in statistics, a mathematical demonstration was developed to point out the diference between the product of two averages (e.g. P=UxI) and the average of the products (e.g. P=(UxI). Complementarily, a brief on U and I waveform distortion sources were discussed, emphasising the diference between signal standard deviations and measurement errors. It was demonstrated that the product of two averages is not the same as the average of the products, unless in specifc conditions (when the variables are fully correlated). It was concluded that the statistical correlation can easily fag the interrelation, but if assisted by covariance, these statistics quantify the inaccuracy between approaches. Finally, although the statistics' determination is easy to implement, it is proposed that power should always be calculated as the average of the instantaneous U and I products. It is also proposed that measurement error sources should be observed and mitigated, since they predictably interfere in power calculation accuracy.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engin, 2022
Emneord
Electrical power measurement, Arc welding, Instantaneous power, Probability theory, Covariance, Correlation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17966 (URN)10.1007/s40430-021-03317-6 (DOI)000728176000002 ()2-s2.0-85120972487 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-12-23 Laget: 2021-12-23 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Jorge, V. L., Teixeira, F. R. & Scotti, A. (2022). Pyrometrical Interlayer Temperature Measurement in WAAM of Thin Wall: Strategies, Limitations and Functionality. Metals, 12(5), 1-17
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Pyrometrical Interlayer Temperature Measurement in WAAM of Thin Wall: Strategies, Limitations and Functionality
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant efforts have been spent determining or monitoring interlayer temperatures (IT) to increase quality in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). However, an uneven thermal profile in the wall and a temperature gradient along the layer length are expected after a thin wall layer deposition, questioning the effectiveness of IT and its measuring approaches. After identifying the holistic meaning of IT, this work aimed at confronting two strategies using infrared pyrometers, elucidating their advantages and limitations for both open and closed‐loop control. The proposed Upper and Sideward Pyrometer strategies were presented in detail and then assessed at different distances from the heat source. A calibration procedure was proposed. The results confirmed the existence of a natural temperature gradient along the wall. In addition, they showed how differently the arc heat affects the measured points (in intensity and steadiness) according to the strategy. Therefore, the interlayer temperature measured at a specific point on a part manufactured by WAAM should be taken as a reference and not an absolute value; the absolute value changes according to the measuring approach, sensor positioning and calibration. Using a temperature reference, both strategies can be used in open‐loop control to reach repeatability (geometrical and metallurgical) between layers. However, the Sideward Pyrometer strategy is more recommended for feedback control of production, despite being less flexible. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2022
Emneord
Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing; IR pyrometer; interlayer temperature; control; quality
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18392 (URN)10.3390/met12050765 (DOI)000801699300001 ()2-s2.0-85129133792 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

This study was supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), through grants 165902/2020-5 and 302863/2016-8, and by the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), through Finance Code 001

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-09-28 Laget: 2022-09-28 Sist oppdatert: 2022-09-28
Pereira Ferreira, R. & Scotti, A. (2021). Concept of a Novel Path Planning Strategy for Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing of Bulky Parts : Pixel. Metals, 11(3), 1-20, Article ID 498.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Concept of a Novel Path Planning Strategy for Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing of Bulky Parts : Pixel
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Metals, E-ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 1-20, artikkel-id 498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

An innovative trajectory strategy was proposed and accessed for wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), applicable to different and more complex geometries, rather than being a single solution. This strategy, named Pixel, can be defined as a complex multitask procedure to carry out optimized path planning, whose operation is made through computational algorithms (heuristics), with accessible computational resources and tolerable computational time. The model layers are fractioned in squared grids, and a set of dots is systematically generated and distributed inside the sliced outlines, resembling pixels on a screen, over which the trajectory is planned. The Pixel strategy was based on creating trajectories from the technique travelling salesman problem (TSP). Unlike existing algorithms, the Pixel strategy uses an adapted greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) metaheuristic, aided by four concurrent trajectory planning heuristics, developed by the authors. Interactions provide successive trajectories from randomized initial solutions (global search) and subsequent iterative improvements (local search). After all recurrent loops, a trajectory is defined and written in machine code. Computational evaluation was implemented to demonstrate the effectof each of the heuristics on the final trajectory. An experimental evaluation was eventually carried out using two different not easily printable shapes to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed strategy.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2021
Emneord
wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), trajectory planning, optimization heuristics, greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), travelling salesman problem (TSP)
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16434 (URN)10.3390/met11030498 (DOI)000633872200001 ()2-s2.0-85102590765 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding information:Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e TecnológicoGrant number 302863/2016-8

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-15 Laget: 2021-04-15 Sist oppdatert: 2022-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Scotti, F. M., da Silva, L. J., Fernandes, D. B., Reis, R. P. & Scotti, A. (2021). Effect of O2 content in argon-based shielding gas on arc wandering in WAAM of aluminum thin walls. CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 32, 338-345
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of O2 content in argon-based shielding gas on arc wandering in WAAM of aluminum thin walls
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 32, s. 338-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of O2 content in argon-based shielding gases over the arc cathodic emission behavior (which can lead to arc wandering) in wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) of thin aluminum walls and its consequences over layer formation. The effect of O2 content on arc wandering was assessed by analyzing cathodic spot behavior through high-speed videography during Gas metal arc (GMA-AM) depositions. Superficial and geometric aspects were analyzed, as well as the sputtering zone width on the wall sides. Through a proposed model, a parallel effect of wire-introduced oxides was weighted to explain arc wandering, searching for oxides in the wall sides (deviating from its action only on the pool). The main finding was that no influence of O2 from the shielding gas was observed on arc wandering, consequently on layer formation, when its content was up to 200 ppm. When an O2 content of 20,000 ppm was employed, oxide searching by the arc in the wall sides was no longer perceived due to enough oxide availability from the shielding gas. However, this favorable condition to layer formation entailed excessive layer oxidation. From the cathodic emission point of view, it can be said that high-purity shielding gases or special mixtures with small additions of O2 (up to 200 ppm) provide no significant advantages for WAAM of aluminum thin walls, at least for the hereby tested alloy and parameters. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Emneord
3D printers; Aluminum; Argon; Gas metal arc welding; Shielding; Video recording, Cathodic emissions; Favorable conditions; Gas metal arcs; High purity; High speed videography; Layer formation; Shielding gas; Thin walls, Gases
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18273 (URN)10.1016/j.cirpj.2021.01.018 (DOI)2-s2.0-85100487603 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

This work was supported by The National Council forScientific and Technological Development – CNPq (grant numbers302863/2016-8 and 315092/2018-1), and by The Coordination forthe Improvement of Higher Education Personnel – CAPES (FinanceCode 001).

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-04-11 Laget: 2022-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2022-04-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Teixeira, F. R., Scotti, F. M., Reis, R. P. & Scotti, A. (2021). Effect of the CMT advanced process combined with an active cooling technique on macro and microstructural aspects of aluminum WAAM. Rapid prototyping journal, 27(6), 1206-1219
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of the CMT advanced process combined with an active cooling technique on macro and microstructural aspects of aluminum WAAM
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 1206-1219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This paper aims to assess the combined effect of the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) advanced process and of a thermal management technique (near immersion active cooling [NIAC]) on the macro and microstructure of Al wall-like preforms built by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). As specific objective, it sought to provide information on the effects of the electrode-positive/electrode-negative (EP/EN) parameter in the CMT advanced process fundamental characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: Initially, bead-on-plate deposits were produced with different EP/EN ratios, still keeping the same deposition rate, and the outcomes on the electrical signal traces and bead formation were analyzed. In a second stage, the EP/EN parameter and the layer edge to water distance (LEWD) parameter from the NIAC technique were systematically varied and the resultant macro and microstructures compared with those formed by applying natural cooling. Findings: Constraints of EP/EN setting range were uncovered and discussed. The use of the NIAC technique favors the formation of finer grains. For a given EP/EN value, a variation in the NIAC intensity (LEWD value) showed marginal effect on grain size. When the EP/EN parameter effect is isolated, i.e. for a given LEWD setting, it was observed that an increase in the EP/EN level favors coarser grains. Originality/value: Both the EP/EN parameter and the use of an active cooling technique (NIAC) might be used, even in combination, as effective tools for achieving proper macro and microstructure in WAAM of thin wall builds. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021
Emneord
3D printers; Aluminum; Deposition rates; Microstructure; Walls (structural partitions), Advanced process; Cold metal transfers; Design/methodology/approach; Electrical signal; Macro- and microstructure; Management techniques; Microstructural aspects; Parameter effects, Cooling
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18272 (URN)10.1108/RPJ-11-2020-0285 (DOI)000667798500001 ()2-s2.0-85108786859 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding by:

Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (Grant number 302863/2016-8, 315092-1, 157715/2019-1)

Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (Grant number 88887.373591/2019-00)

Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Amapa (FAPEAP) Petrobras (Grant number 23117.018175/2019-80)

Petrobras

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-04-11 Laget: 2022-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2022-04-11
da Silva, L. J., Ferraresi, H. N., Araújo, D. B., Reis, R. P. & Scotti, A. (2021). Effect of thermal management approaches on geometry and productivity of thin-walled structures of er 5356 built by wire + arc additive manufacturing. Coatings, 11(9)
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of thermal management approaches on geometry and productivity of thin-walled structures of er 5356 built by wire + arc additive manufacturing
Vise andre…
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 11, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper aimed at assessing the effect of two thermal management approaches on geometry and productivity of thin-walled structures built by Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM). Thin-walls of ER 5356 (Al5Mg) with different lengths and the same number of layers were deposited via the gas metal arc (GMA) process with the aid of an active cooling technique (near-immersion active cooling-NIAC) under a fixed set of deposition parameters. Then, the same experiment was performed with natural cooling (NC) in air. To characterize the thermal management approaches, the interpass temperature (i.e., the temperature at which subsequent layers are deposited) were monitored by a trailing/leading infrared pyrometer during the deposition time. Finally, thin walls with a fixed length were deposited using the NC and NIAC approaches with equivalent interpass temperatures. As expected, the shorter the wall length the more intense the deposition concentration, heat accumulation, and, thus, geometric deviation. This behavior was more evident and premature for the NC strategy due to its lower heat sinking effectiveness. The main finding was that, regardless of the thermal management technique applied, if the same interpass temperature is selected and maintained, the geometry of the part being built tends to be stable and very similar. However, the total deposition time is somewhat shorter with the NIAC technique due its greater heat sinking advantage. Thus, the NIAC technique facilitates the non-stop manufacturing of small parts and details via WAAM. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2021
Emneord
directed energy deposition; wire + arc additive manufacturing; cold metal transfer; thin-walled structures; thermal management; part geometry; production time
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17562 (URN)10.3390/coatings11091141 (DOI)000699114800001 ()2-s2.0-85115604285 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

This research was supported by the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), through Finance Code 001, and by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), through Grants 302863/2016-8 and 315092/2018-1.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-11-08 Laget: 2021-11-08 Sist oppdatert: 2022-01-19
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1005-5895