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Ekström, S., Forslund Frykedal, K., Hermansson, A., Ögren Jansson, M. & Lundström, M. (2023). Micro-teaching i Grundlärarprogrammet: Ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt för att stödja lärarstudenter att utveckla yrkesspecifik kunskap i matematik. In: Abstracts för Decemberkonferensen: . Paper presented at Decemberkonferensen Institutionen för individ och samhälle 13 december 2023, Trollhättan, Sweden (pp. 1-1). Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-teaching i Grundlärarprogrammet: Ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt för att stödja lärarstudenter att utveckla yrkesspecifik kunskap i matematik
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2023 (Swedish)In: Abstracts för Decemberkonferensen, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2023, p. 1-1Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vid matematikutbildningen i lärarprogrammen vid Högskolan Väst (HV) genomförs ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt (med flera delstudier) för att stödja lärarstudenter att utveckla specifik yrkeskunskap som förbereder dem för undervisningens komplexitet. Kontexten i den här studien är förskoleklassen, den skolform som ska knyta samman förskolans och skolans pedagogik. I en granskning av undervisningen i förskoleklassen (Skolinspektionen, 2015) framkom att endast en fjärdedel av eleverna får en undervisning som motsvarar läroplanens övergripande mål för kunskaper. Det finns därför ett stort behov av att utveckla undervisningen i förskoleklass. Detta gäller särskilt undervisningen i matematik.

Teoretisk utgångspunkt i projektet är Banduras teori om självtillit i att undervisa (1997). Forskningen behandlar individens föreställningar om sin kompetens och inte den reella undervisningsförmågan. Det finns dock en tydlig koppling mellan lärares uppfattningar om sin kompetens och vad deras elever presterar. I studien undersöker vi lärarstudenters tilltro till deras egen förmåga att undervisa i matematik och hur den förändras när studenterna får genomföra micro-teaching inför sin VFU (Pekdağ et al., 2020).

Studien inleddes med att studenterna fick undervisning i matematik och därefter med handledningsstöd planera en matematiklektion. Lärarutbildare och studentkollegor gav feedback via ett strukturerat observationsprotokoll i ett intilliggande hybridklassrum. Samma undervisningssession genomfördes sedan på VFU där läraren observerade och gav feedback. Datainsamling har skett genom fokusgrupper för att fånga studenternas upplevelse av micro-teaching och om/hur den förändrat deras tillit till att undervisa i matematik. Teoretiskt analysverktyg är fyra aspekter som stöd för utveckling av självtillit (Bandura, 1997).

Generellt upplevde studenterna micro-teaching som lärorikt och vill gärna möta liknande upplägg igen. Kontinuerlig återkoppling på ett begränsat innehåll upplevdes positivt. Studenterna tyckte tekniken med micro-teaching var en bra lärsituation, som blandade teori och praktik samt gav dem nya perspektiv på deras egen undervisning, en “levande kunskap”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst, 2023
Keywords
lärarstudenter, kunskap, matematik, förskola
National Category
Pedagogical Work Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-21129 (URN)
Conference
Decemberkonferensen Institutionen för individ och samhälle 13 december 2023, Trollhättan, Sweden
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-21 Last updated: 2024-03-20Bibliographically approved
Ekström, S. (2023). Teaching with social robots. (Doctoral dissertation). Trollhättan: University West
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching with social robots
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The school's digitalization is an ongoing process that brings new didactic opportunities, but also challenges. Social educational robots entail a complex teaching situation and affect the teacher's role, actions, and responsibilities in the classroom. Through observations in an authentic classroom context, this thesis aims to provide a nuanced and realistic picture of how teaching with social robots can unfold. Social educational robots have previously been explored in different educational contexts, but few studies shed light on the teacher role. Nor is it discussed what new aspects of digital competence become important when teaching with educational technologies that exhibit social behaviour. This thesis studies teacher actions and intended actions in a learning activity where a child collaborates with a social educational robot. In the activity, the robot is designed to act as a learning companion (tutee), the child acts as a teacher (tutor), and sometimes a few peers participate. The study is based on video observations of teachers' dialogues and behaviours in this learning activity, and a total of 25 hours of recorded video material has been analysed. The observations are supplemented with interviews, workshops, and questionnaires, where more teachers reflect on teaching with social robots.

The result shows that social educational robots may contribute to relevant learning situations but also introduce new teacher roles, bringing additional challenges. The teacher's most prominent role in this learning activity is as an interaction mentor, in which the teacher assists the verbal and non-verbal interaction between the child and the robot, such as verbal communication fluency, explaining the robot's behaviour to the child, and maintaining attention.The result also identifies challenges that may emerge if social educational robots are used for teaching and learning. One of these challenges is due to the teacher relating to the robot as a didactic tool as well as a social actor, interchangeably. This duality causes conflicts in the teacher's actions, as the two perspectives call for different behaviours. The thesis also shows that using social educational robots entails new demands for adequate digital competence.

Abstract [sv]

Skolans digitalisering är en pågående process som medför nya didaktiska möjligheter; men också utmaningar. Användningen av social utbildningsrobotar medför en komplex undervisningssituation och påverkar lärarens roll, agerande och ansvar i klassrummet. Denna avhandling strävar efter att, genom observationer i en autentisk klassrumskontext, ge en nyanserad och realistisk bild av hur undervisning med sociala robotar kan ta sig uttryck. Tidigare forskning visar att sociala utbildningsrobotar kan öka elevers motivation och engagemang men även stimulera elevers förmåga till resonemang och problemlösning. Sociala robotar har studerats i olika undervisningskontexter och skolämne men också i olika roller, som exempelvis lärare, lärassistent, lärkamrat eller nybörjare. När sociala robotar designas som lärkamrat bygger det ofta på idéen om learning-by teaching, dvs att barnet lär sig genom att lära ut olika kunskaper och färdigheter till roboten. Dock uppstår det en rad etiska dilemman i samband med lärsituationer som bygger på interaktioner mellan barn och robotar. Tidigare forskning visar också att lärare har en varierad inställning till användningen av sociala utbildningsrobotar men få studier belyser lärarens roll och agerande då sociala robotar används i undervisningen. Inte heller diskuteras vilka nya aspekterav digital kompetens som lärare behöver för att undervisa med utbildningsteknologier som uppvisar ett socialt beteende.

I denna avhandling studeras lärarens agerande i en läraktivitet där ett barn samarbetar med en social utbildningsrobot. Tillsammans spelar barnet och roboten ett digitalt matematikspel på en interaktiv tavla. Roboten är designad till att i aktiviteten agera som en frågvis lärkamrat (tutee) och barnet agerar som lärare (tutor). Under vissa spelsessioner deltar också några kamrater i läraktiviteten. Den genomförda fallstudien baseras framför allt på videoobservationer av lärares dialoger och beteenden i denna läraktivitet, och totalt har över 25 timmar inspelat videomaterial analyserats. Observationerna kompletteras med intervjuer, workshopar och enkäter, där fler lärare ges möjlighet att reflektera över undervisning med sociala robotar. För att bättre förstå lärarens roll och agerande i den givna läraktiviteten användes kulturhistorisk aktivitetsteori som analytisk lins. Avhandlingens resultat innehåller dels en beskrivande syntes av erhållna resultat från de bifogade artiklarna, dels en re-analys av all ingående data.

Syntesen visar att användningen av en social utbildningsrobot kan skapa intressanta och relevanta lärsituationer men visar också att roboten för med sig många utmaningar. Till exempel uppstår en del tekniska problem som medför att läraren behöver agera i rollen som teknisk facilitator. Dock är den mest framträdande lärarrollen i läraktiviteten den som interaktionsmentor. Rollen innebär att läraren assisterar den verbala och icke-verbala interaktionen mellan barnet och roboten. Det handlar i första hand om att hjälpa barnet att få ett flyt in den verbala kommunikationen, förklara robotens frågor och hur roboten tolkar barnens svar på dessa. I andra hand handlar det om att förklara robotens beteende för barnet samt se till att de två spelarna bibehåller varandras uppmärksamhet. Vidare belyser re-analysen andra utmaningar med att använda sociala robotar för undervisning och lärande. En av dessa utmaning grundar sig i att läraren förhåller sig på olika sätt till roboten, dvs att läraren ibland ser på roboten som ett didaktiskt verktyg och ibland på roboten som en social aktör. Denna dualitet medför att konflikter i lärarens agerande uppstår, då de två perspektiven inte alltid är förenliga. Exempelvis handlar det om vilket lärobjekt som ska stå i fokus i läraktiviteten och om vilka sociala normer som är rimliga i ett barn-robot samarbete. Avhandlingen visar också att användningen av sociala utbildningsrobotar ställer nya krav på vad adekvat digital kompetens innebär. En aspekt av kompetensbegreppet är teknisk kompetens, med kunskaper om datasäker och programmering, och en annan aspekt är kritisk kompetens, vilken inkluderar olika etiska dilemman som uppstår om sociala robotar används i undervisningssammanhang. En tredje aspekt är praktisk kompetens, vilken handlar om att själv kunna interagera med sociala undervisningsrobotar, men också om att kunna förstå och nyttja de båda perspektiven på roboten för att uppnå syftet med undervisningen.

Avhandlingen bidrar med utökad kunskap om vilka möjligheter och utmaningar användningen av sociala utbildningsrobotar medför. Dessutom bidrar den till praktiken, vilken får en inblick i vilka nya krav på digital kompetens som växer fram då utbildningsteknologier uppvisar sociala egenskaper och beteende. Avslutningsvis bidar avhandlingen till teorin (CHAT) genom att föreslå ett utvidgat aktivitetssystem med dubbla och alternerande perspektiv på sociala robotar: dels som verktyg, dels som en del av gemenskapen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2023. p. 133
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 55
Keywords
Social Robots; Educational Technology; Human-Robot Interaction; Teachers; Activity Theory, Sociala Robotar; Utbildningsteknologi; Människa- Robotinteraktion; Lärare; Aktivitetsteori
National Category
Learning Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19687 (URN)9789189325449 (ISBN)9789189325432 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-03-30, sal F211 / https://hv-se.zoom.us/j/3832593592 event Lägg till i din kalender, Gustava Melins gata, Trollhättan, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Delarbeten A, C och D har tagits bort ur den elektroniska avhandlingen.

Paper A, C and D are not included in the electronic thesis. 

Available from: 2023-03-10 Created: 2023-02-27 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Pareto, L., Ekström, S. & Serholt, S. (2022). Children's learning-by-teaching with a social robot versus a younger child: Comparing interactions and tutoring styles.. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9, Article ID 875704.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's learning-by-teaching with a social robot versus a younger child: Comparing interactions and tutoring styles.
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, article id 875704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human peer tutoring is known to be effective for learning, and social robots are currently being explored for robot-assisted peer tutoring. In peer tutoring, not only the tutee but also the tutor benefit from the activity. Exploiting the learning-by-teaching mechanism, robots as tutees can be a promising approach for tutor learning. This study compares robots and humans by examining children's learning-by-teaching with a social robot and younger children, respectively. The study comprised a small-scale field experiment in a Swedish primary school, following a within-subject design. Ten sixth-grade students (age 12-13) assigned as tutors conducted two 30 min peer tutoring sessions each, one with a robot tutee and one with a third-grade student (age 9-10) as the tutee. The tutoring task consisted of teaching the tutee to play a two-player educational game designed to promote conceptual understanding and mathematical thinking. The tutoring sessions were video recorded, and verbal actions were transcribed and extended with crucial game actions and user gestures, to explore differences in interaction patterns between the two conditions. An extension to the classical initiation-response-feedback framework for classroom interactions, the IRFCE tutoring framework, was modified and used as an analytic lens. Actors, tutoring actions, and teaching interactions were examined and coded as they unfolded in the respective child-robot and child-child interactions during the sessions. Significant differences between the robot tutee and child tutee conditions regarding action frequencies and characteristics were found, concerning tutee initiatives, tutee questions, tutor explanations, tutee involvement, and evaluation feedback. We have identified ample opportunities for the tutor to learn from teaching in both conditions, for different reasons. The child tutee condition provided opportunities to engage in explanations to the tutee, experience smooth collaboration, and gain motivation through social responsibility for the younger child. The robot tutee condition provided opportunities to answer challenging questions from the tutee, receive plenty of feedback, and communicate using mathematical language. Hence, both conditions provide good learning opportunities for a tutor, but in different ways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
child–robot interaction, comparative study, learning-by-teaching, mathematics game, peer tutoring, robot tutee, robot versus human, video analysis
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19421 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2022.875704 (DOI)000885048100001 ()36388256 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142005734 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was partially supported by the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation through the project START (Student Tutorand Robot Tutee) MAW 2016.0117 and partially by the Swedish Research Council through the national research school GRADE (GRAduate school for Digital technologies in Education), grant 2017-03687. The authors are solely responsible for the content ofthis publication. It does not represent the opinion of the funders, andthe Wallenberg Foundation and Swedish Research Council are not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing therein.

This is an open-access articledistributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC BY).

Available from: 2022-12-22 Created: 2022-12-22 Last updated: 2022-12-22
Ekström, S. (2022). Experiences Of Teaching And Learning With Social Robots. In: ICERI2022 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 15th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 7-9 November, 2022, Seville, Spain (pp. 1678-1685). iated Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences Of Teaching And Learning With Social Robots
2022 (English)In: ICERI2022 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2022, p. 1678-1685Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a growing interest in exploring how social robots can be used for teaching and learning and robots are now studied in a variety of subjects. When robots are used for teaching, they are often assigned a role with a social character appropriate for the intended learning activity. This study focuses on a learning activity where a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a social robot in a middle school classroom. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching, where the robot has been designed as a tutee and the child is assigned the role of tutor. Through interviews and questionnaires, the children’s, and the teacher's experiences of the learning activity were captured. How does the social robot perform as a tool for teaching and learning? How should the activity be organized and how should the teacher act?

The study shows that the children think that the robot can express itself verbally and ask appropriate questions. They experience it as a social and fun co-player. However, the robot has several limitations, where difficulties in verbal communication are the most characteristic, such as language recognition, timing, and strange comments. In addition, children react negatively to the robot losing attention to the child and not being able to play the game properly. Moreover, the children think that the activity can be carried out both individually and in groups but consider that the teacher must be in the classroom to explain the activity and above all, to support the child-robot interaction both verbally and technically.

In many ways, the teacher expresses similar thoughts as the children. The robot engages students and through its questions, the robot makes them reflect and communicate mathematics. As the robot gives students continuous responses, students become more persistent in their learning. The teacher also mentions problems with verbal child-robot communication. The students need to speak loud and clear with reasonably long sentences and the right timing. In addition, the teacher experiences technical problems, such as the players losing contact with each other.

The teacher considers the activity challenging to carry out in a classroom partly because background noise interferes with the robot interaction and partly because the activity is not suitable for all students. The teacher also mentions the importance of introducing the game and declaring the purpose of the activity, since it may be hard for students to focus on the game and the robot simultaneously. If using the activity in teaching, the teacher imagines that [s]he needs to support the child-robot interaction, i.e., repeat and explain the robot's questions and help the child with what, how, and when to answer the robot. Besides, the teacher may also help with mathematics and encourage strategies and detailed explanations. Unlike the children, the teacher thinks that the activity enables opportunities for assessment of the playing students.

Finally, the study also revealed some ethical dilemmas with using social robots in educational contexts. It was partly about renegotiating prevailing social norms and partly about the deception of assigning a tool human characteristic. Together with the technical and didactic experiences of teaching and learning with social robots, the study provided an insight into a[n] [in]possible future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
iated Digital Library, 2022
Keywords
Social Robots, Teacher Role, Education
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Pedagogy Learning
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19654 (URN)10.21125/iceri.2022.0436 (DOI)978-84-09-45476-1 (ISBN)
Conference
15th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 7-9 November, 2022, Seville, Spain
Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2023-02-27Bibliographically approved
Ekström, S. (2022). Lära tillsammans genom digitala medier (1ed.). In: Veronica Alfredsson, Noomi Asker, Christel Backman & Sara Uhnoo (Ed.), Använd rummet: högskolepedagogiska metoder för aktiva lärosalar (pp. 127-135). Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lära tillsammans genom digitala medier
2022 (Swedish)In: Använd rummet: högskolepedagogiska metoder för aktiva lärosalar / [ed] Veronica Alfredsson, Noomi Asker, Christel Backman & Sara Uhnoo, Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 127-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Studentlitteratur AB, 2022 Edition: 1
Keywords
Digitala medier, lärande, ALC, Active learning classroom
National Category
Learning Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19765 (URN)9789144157795 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-03-10 Created: 2023-03-10 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Ekström, S. & Pareto, L. (2022). The dual role of humanoid robots in education: As didactic tools and social actors. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The dual role of humanoid robots in education: As didactic tools and social actors
2022 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The idea of using social robots for teaching and learning has become increasingly prevalent and robots are assigned various roles in different educational settings. However, there are still few authentic studies conducted over time. Our study explores teachers’ perceptions of a learning activity in which a child plays a digital mathematics game together with a humanoid robot. The activity is based on the idea of learning-by-teaching where the robot is designed to act as a tutee while the child is assigned the role of a tutor. The question is how teachers perceive and talk about the robot in this collaborative child-robot learning activity? The study is based on data produced during a 2-years long co-design process involving teachers and students. Initially, the teachers reflected on the general concept of the learning activity, later in the process they participated in authentic game-play sessions in a classroom. All teachers’ statements were transcribed and thematically coded, then categorized into two different perspectives on the robot: as a social actor or didactic tool. Activity theory was used as an analytical lens to analyze these different views. Findings show that the teachers discussed the activity’s purpose, relation to curriculum, child-robot collaboration, and social norms. The study shows that teachers had, and frequently switched between, both robot-perspectives during all topics, and their perception changed during the process. The dual perspectives contribute to the understanding of social robots for teaching and learning, and to future development of educational robot design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Humanoid robots; Social robots; Education; Teachers; Activity theory
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Learning
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18672 (URN)10.1007/s10639-022-11132-2 (DOI)000805713900001 ()2-s2.0-85131324006 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported partly by the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation through the project START (Student Tutor and Robot Tutee), and partly by the Swedish Research Council through the national graduate school GRADE (Graduate School for digital technologies in education)

Available from: 2022-06-29 Created: 2022-06-29 Last updated: 2024-04-08
Ekström, S. & Fuentes Martinez, A. (2020). New Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Robots and Artificial Intelligence: How Teachers’ Programming Knowledge Could Affect Future Educational Technology. In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020. Paper presented at 14Th International Technology, Education And Development Conference (Inted2020) (pp. 3475-3483). International Association for Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Robots and Artificial Intelligence: How Teachers’ Programming Knowledge Could Affect Future Educational Technology
2020 (English)In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 3475-3483Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Educational Robots (ER) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are rapidly evolving to meet the challenges that characterize school environments. The direction in which these emerging technologies will develop, and the effect they finally have on schools, will partially be shaped by how scholars and practitioners imagine future education. A recent study about the views of teachers and educational researchers regarding the use of ER and AI for learning purposes highlighted this issue [1]. This study revealed that, beside an urgent need for teacher professional development, the participants were concerned about human interrelations, individualization, educational management and ethics. However, both groups showed a rudimentary understanding of the differences between these two technologies. More importantly, there seemed to be a gap in the way teachers and researchers in that study approached new technologies in education. Whereas for teachers the purpose of technology was to enhance current teaching processes, for researchers, technology had a deeper transformational potential. Since then, a large national program aiming at increasing schoolteachers’ computational thinking and coding skills has been put into practice at several Swedish universities to support the introduction of computer programming in the K-12 curriculum. To account for these new developments, we wanted to investigate how these teacher professional development programs could reflect on upcoming school technologies. University teachers in charge of the programming courses could provide insightful information about how ER and AI can mold future school practices since they represent an entrance point for teachers into these technologies. Delegates from several universities involved in the development of programming courses for K-12 teachers were therefore invited to give their vision of a future classroom. In order to compare with the previous study, seventeen university teachers were also asked to imagine a teaching situation in a school in which a) social robots and b) robots with artificial intelligence, were a reality. They were further requested to reflect upon which challenges and possibilities could emerge when using ER and AI in post-digital K-12 education. Which differences appear relevant compared to the participants in the previous study? The analysis showed that the university teachers participating in our study coincide in pointing out potential gains in individualizing teaching and relieving teachers from routine tasks. Our informants adhered to the position of schoolteachers and did not predict any fundamental transformations in the current teaching practices. Unique for our participants was their ability to discern between ER and AI and that, while they were largely sceptic toward the cognitive benefits of a physical robot, they trusted the software to achieve similar results in a traditional computer. Given the premises in this investigation “future teachers that already knew how to program”, the participants in our study did not suggest further need for professional development, which contrasts with the prevalent opinion in the previous study. If university teachers believe that programming knowledge is enough to bridge the competence gap, and they do not expect any radical transformation in education, maybe ER and AI could be fully integrated in the teaching practice more easily than it was predicted earlier

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020
Series
INTED Proceedings
Keywords
Educational robots; Artificial Intelligence; Computer programming; Computational thinking; Post-digital education; K-12 education; ICT curriculum
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16983 (URN)978-84-09-17939-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14Th International Technology, Education And Development Conference (Inted2020)
Available from: 2021-10-01 Created: 2021-10-01 Last updated: 2021-11-01Bibliographically approved
Ekström, S. & Pareto, L. (2020). New Teacher Roles With Social Robots as Actors in the Classroom. In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020. Paper presented at 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020 (pp. 6636-6644). International Association for Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Teacher Roles With Social Robots as Actors in the Classroom
2020 (English)In: INTED 2020: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020, p. 6636-6644Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Robots are entering the classrooms and provide new opportunities for education. Educational robots can either be used for programming, or as new types of social actors where these robots are designed to play different roles such as teachers, tutors, peers or tutees. However, new social actors affect the scene for learning by altering the social dynamics in the classroom, which in turn affects the roles of the other actors. In this study we explore the role of teachers in robot-enhanced classrooms, and ask the question: What new teacher roles emerge when robots enter the classroom as social actors? In this study we explore a setting where a student plays an educational mathematics game together with a humanoid robot on an interactive whiteboard, guided and supported by teachers and peers from the class. Four classes of school children in 2nd and 41h grade participated and played for about 5 minutes each. The game playing sessions were video-recorded, and 32 sessions were randomly selected, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using Interaction Analysis. Situations in which the teacher acted were analyzed to investigate when and why the teacher intervened and what types of support that was provided to the student. Results show that the teacher took several roles during the sessions. Traditional roles include moderator organizing the learning and managing social interactions as well as educator supporting the student’s learning by scaffolding mathematical problems and game-playing strategies. In addition, the teacher had to act technical facilitator handling problems and challenges with using the robot, and the role as interaction mentor guiding and supporting the student to manage the social interaction with the robot. The latter two roles are challenging and unfamiliar to most teachers. We conclude that using robots as social actors in education introduce new, challenging teacher roles requiring substantial and specific digital competence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020
Keywords
educational robot; humanoid robot; teacher role; social actor; education; classroom study
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16991 (URN)978-84-09-17939-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020, International Association for Technology, Education and Development, 2020
Available from: 2021-10-01 Created: 2021-10-01 Last updated: 2023-02-27Bibliographically approved
Serholt, S., Pareto, L., Ekström, S. & Ljungblad, S. (2020). Trouble and Repair in Child-Robot Interaction: A Study of Complex Interactions With a Robot Tutee in a Primary School Classroom. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 7, Article ID 46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trouble and Repair in Child-Robot Interaction: A Study of Complex Interactions With a Robot Tutee in a Primary School Classroom
2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 7, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 View references (31)Today, robots are studied and expected to be used in a range of social roles within classrooms. Yet, due to a number of limitations in social robots, robot interactions should be expected to occasionally suffer from troublesome situations and breakdowns. In this paper, we explore this issue by studying how children handle interaction trouble with a robot tutee in a classroom setting. The findings have implications not only for the design of robots, but also for evaluating their benefit in, and for, educational contexts. In this study, we conducted video analysis of children's group interactions with a robot tutee in a classroom setting, in order to explore the nature of these troubles in the wild. Within each group, children took turns acting as the primary interaction partner for the robot within the context of a mathematics game. Specifically, we examined what types of situations constitute trouble in these child–robot interactions, the strategies that individual children employ to cope with this trouble, as well as the strategies employed by other actors witnessing the trouble. By means of Interaction Analysis, we studied the video recordings of nine group interaction sessions (n = 33 children) in primary school grades 2 and 4. We found that sources of trouble related to the robot's social norm violations, which could be either active or passive. In terms of strategies, the children either persisted in their attempts at interacting with the robot by adapting their behavior in different ways, distanced themselves from the robot, or sought the help of present adults (i.e., a researcher in a teacher role, or an experimenter) or their peers (i.e., the child's classmates in each group). In terms of the witnessing actors, they addressed the trouble by providing guidance directed at the child interacting with the robot, or by intervening in the interaction. These findings reveal the unspoken rules by which children orient toward social robots, the complexities of child–robot interaction in the wild, and provide insights on children's perspectives and expectations of social robots in classroom contexts. © Copyright © 2020 Serholt, Pareto, Ekström and Ljungblad

National Category
Human Computer Interaction Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15169 (URN)10.3389/frobt.2020.00046 (DOI)000529907500001 ()2-s2.0-85083889881 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2020-06-02 Created: 2020-06-02 Last updated: 2023-02-27
Pareto, L., Ekström, S., Barendregt, W., Serholt, S. & Kiesewetter, S. (2019). Augmenting Game-Based Learning With a Robot Tutee. In: Proceedings of the European conference on games-based learning: . Paper presented at European Conference on Games Based Learning Oct 2019 (pp. 560-568). Reading: Academic Publishing International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmenting Game-Based Learning With a Robot Tutee
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the European conference on games-based learning, Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2019, p. 560-568Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the initial design of an educational setup where a humanoid robot is used as a game companionto a child while they play an educational arithmetic game together. Drawing on the learning-by-teaching paradigm, therobot’s purpose is to act as the child’s tutee and ask questions related to gameplay and the arithmetic content of the game. The original version of the game utilized a virtual teachable agent, which was shown to be effective for children’s learning in previous studies. Here we replace the virtual agent with a social robot to explore if and how the embodiment and social-like behaviour of robots can augment game-based learning further. Our aim is to design a robot tutee that will enhance the game experience and stimulate elaboration of the game’s learning material. So far we have conducted two design workshops with 81 schoolchildren in grades 2 and 4 where they experienced the robot and the game in their classrooms. In this paper, we present the results of two post-workshop questionnaires, where the children were asked about desired behaviour for learning companions and their experiences with the robot as a game playing tutee. The first post-workshop questionnaire revealed that children would like to have a robot tutee that behaves as a kind and helpful human peer, but with improved capacities such as being kind to everyone, providing better explanations, and giving more compliments. The second postworkshop questionnaire revealed that the children accepted the tutor–tutee role-division and that a majority of children were able to hear, but less so, understand, the robot’s questions. Implications of these findings for design of the robot tutee are discussed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2019
Series
European Conference on Games Based Learning, ISSN 2049-0992
Keywords
robot tutee, teachable agent, educational game, game-based learning, co-design
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
SOCIAL SCIENCE, Informatics; Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-14744 (URN)10.34190/GBL.19.138 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075297592 (Scopus ID)
Conference
European Conference on Games Based Learning Oct 2019
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9399-0159

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