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Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Hosseini, V., Thuvander, M., Lindgren, K., Oliver, J., Folkeson, N., Gonzalez, D., . . . Karlsson, L. (2023). Influence of Fabrication Route and Copper Content on Nature and Kinetics of 475 °C- Embrittlement in Cu-Containing Super Duplex Stainless Steels. Steel Research International, 4, 1-12, Article ID 2200978.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Fabrication Route and Copper Content on Nature and Kinetics of 475 °C- Embrittlement in Cu-Containing Super Duplex Stainless Steels
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2023 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 4, p. 1-12, article id 2200978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of hot-rolling, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), welding, as well as copper content on 475 °C-embrittlement is studied in super duplex stainless steels. The as-received samples are solution annealed and quenched. Then, to study the kinetics and nature of phase transformations during fabrication, the samples are aged for a very short duration of 5 min at 475 °C. Atom probe tomography results reveal that the processes involving more plastic deformation such as hot rolling and HIP accelerate chromium and iron phase separation and cause precipitation of copper-rich particles (CRPs) in ferrite, resulting in significant toughness loss. In contrast, the weld does not show a high level of chromium and iron phase separation or CRPs precipitation, preserving its toughness after the short aging. The experiment and the inverse interdiffusion calculations reveal that raising the copper content slow down chromium and iron phase separation but significantly increase the CRP number density and decrease the toughness of the HIPed material. Precipitation simulation of CPRs show that the model must be modified based on each processing condition. It is concluded that hot rolling and HIP accelerate 475 °C-embrittlement, which cannot be prevented by raising the copper content.

Keywords
Cu-rich particle precipitation, Fe and Cr phase separation, simulations, super duplex stainless steels, 475 °C- embrittlement
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-20888 (URN)10.1002/srin.202200978 (DOI)001069592700001 ()2-s2.0-85171449212 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, ALWAYS project
Available from: 2023-12-28 Created: 2023-12-28 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Hosseini, V., Neikter, M. & Pederson, R. (2023). Welding of special alloys. In: Fuad Khoshnaw (Ed.), Welding of Metallic Materials: Methods, Metallurgy, and Performance (pp. 279-316). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Welding of special alloys
2023 (English)In: Welding of Metallic Materials: Methods, Metallurgy, and Performance / [ed] Fuad Khoshnaw, Elsevier , 2023, p. 279-316Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Specialty alloys are a broad group of materials providing superior properties to common materials and are therefore used for more demanding applications. Specialty alloys require sophisticated manufacturing routes, e.g., vacuum metallurgy, to account for all the alloying elements needed to finalize the specific alloy for its intended purpose. The alloys of Duplex stainless steels, superalloys, and Titanium alloys are examples of so-called specialty alloys where aerospace, chemical, and petrochemical industries are just a few areas mentioned where these specialty alloys are frequently used. Duplex stainless steel, had superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, making them a sustainable choice for a wide variety of applications i.e., petrochemical industries. The superalloys, and especially the precipitation hardening ones belong to a unique plethora of alloys commonly used in aerospace as well as land-based gas turbines which possess superb mechanical performance at elevated temperatures. However, the superalloys are unfortunately very challenging to process, not at least regarding weld cracking. With their high specific strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are favorable for numerous applications. However, they react readily with oxygen at elevated temperatures and therefore inert atmosphere must be used during welding. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Specialty alloys, welding, super alloy, special alloys
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19832 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-323-90552-7.00003-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150109624 (Scopus ID)9780323906708 (ISBN)9780323905527 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Baghdadchi, A., Hosseini, V., Valiente Bermejo, M. A., Axelsson, B., Harati, E., Högström, M. & Karlsson, L. (2022). Wire laser metal deposition of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel: as-deposited and heat-treated microstructure and mechanical properties. Journal of Materials Science, 57(21), 9556-9575
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wire laser metal deposition of 22% Cr duplex stainless steel: as-deposited and heat-treated microstructure and mechanical properties
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 57, no 21, p. 9556-9575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Duplex stainless steel (DSS) blocks with dimensions of 150 × 70x30 mm3 were fabricated by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire (LMDw). Implementation of a programmable logic control system and the hot-wire technology provided a stable and consistent process producing high-quality and virtually defect-free deposits. Microstructure and mechanical properties were studied for as-deposited (AD) material and when heat-treated (HT) for 1 h at 1100 °C. The AD microstructure was inhomogeneous with highly ferritic areas with nitrides and austenitic regions with fine secondary austenite occurring in a periodic manner. Heat treatment produced a homogenized microstructure, free from nitrides and fine secondary austenite, with balanced ferrite and austenite fractions. Although some nitrogen was lost during LMDw, heat treatment or reheating by subsequent passes in AD allowed the formation of about 50% austenite. Mechanical properties fulfilled common requirements on strength and toughness in both as-deposited and heat-treated conditions achieving the highest strength in AD condition and best toughness and ductility in HT condition. Epitaxial ferrite growth, giving elongated grains along the build direction, resulted in somewhat higher toughness in both AD and HT conditions when cracks propagated perpendicular to the build direction. It was concluded that high-quality components can be produced by LMDw and that deposits can be used in either AD or HT conditions. The findings of this research provide valuable input for the fabrication of high-performance DSS AM components

Keywords
A-stable; Build direction; Defect-free; Heat treated condition; High quality; Hot wires; Laser metal deposition; Microstructures and mechanical properties; Programmable logic control system; Secondary austenite
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-18106 (URN)10.1007/s10853-022-06878-6 (DOI)000744401200004 ()2-s2.0-85123120534 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-07 Created: 2022-02-07 Last updated: 2024-04-12Bibliographically approved
Hosseini, V., Cederberg, E., Hurtig, K. & Karlsson, L. (2021). A physical simulation technique for cleaner and more sustainable research in additive manufacturing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 285, Article ID 124910.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A physical simulation technique for cleaner and more sustainable research in additive manufacturing
2021 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 285, article id 124910Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) introduces a new domain for zero waste and cleaner production. Research for verification of materials in AM and effects of the process on the material behavior, however, demands a significant amount of materials, energy, and man-hours. The design of suitable physical simulation techniques that can duplicate complex AM thermal cycles without performing AM is therefore crucial for cleaner and more sustainable AM research. This paper aims at introducing a novel technique to reproduce AM thermal cycles in a controlled way on a small sample, thereby supporting sustainable alloy verification and cleaner research. In this technique, a stationary arc is applied to a disc-shaped sample mounted on a water-cooled chamber, where the arc and water provide rapid heating and cooling, respectively. In the present study, a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) was used as the experimental alloy to simulate the evolution of microstructure and properties during wire-arc additive manufacturing. The experiment was performed using the stationary arc with the holding time of 5 s, applied 1, 5, or 15 times. The total processing time was only 450 s (7.5 min) for the 15 a.m. thermal cycles experiment. The SDSS showed a progressive increase in the austenite fraction at 600–1200 °C and the formation of detrimental sigma phase at 700–1000 °C, but a reduction of austenite fraction above 1300 °C. The results were in good agreement with the literature, verifying the applicability of the physical simulation technique for AM research. Calculations showed that using arc heat treatment as the initial step is 6–20 times more efficient in different respects (materials, energy, and man-hours) compared to wire arc additive manufacturing. Therefore, this methodology can be implemented to gain an understanding of materials in AM applications thereby eliminating the need for investments in additive manufacturing of a specific component. © 2020

Keywords
Additives; Austenite; Duplex stainless steel; Heat treatment; Industrial research; Investments; Microstructural evolution; Pollution control; Thermal cycling; Wire, Cleaner production; Experimental alloys; Microstructure and properties; Physical simulation; Specific component; Super duplex stainless steel; Total processing time; Water-cooled chambers, 3D printers
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16046 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124910 (DOI)000609482500014 ()2-s2.0-85095834411 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-22 Created: 2020-11-22 Last updated: 2022-01-17Bibliographically approved
Hosseini, V., Thuvander, M., Lindgren, K., Oliver, J., Folkeson, N., Gonzalez, D. & Karlsson, L. (2021). Fe and Cr phase separation in super and hyper duplex stainless steel plates and welds after very short aging times. Materials & design, 210, Article ID 110055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fe and Cr phase separation in super and hyper duplex stainless steel plates and welds after very short aging times
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2021 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 210, article id 110055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fe and Cr phase separation in ferrite, causing 475°C-embrittlement, was studied after very short aging times in super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) and hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS) plates and welds. Atom probe tomography showed that hot-rolled SDSS, experiencing significant metal working, had faster kinetics of phase separations compared to the SDSS and HDSS welds after 5 min aging at 475 °C. The surface of the 33-mm SDSS plate had faster Fe and Cr phase separation and larger toughness drop. A higher density of dislocations next to the austenite phase boundary in ferrite, detected by electron channeling contrast, can promote the phase separation at the surface of the plate with lower austenite spacing. The toughness dropped in HDSS welds after aging, but SDSS welds maintained their toughness. An inverse simulation method considering an initial sinusoidal nanometric Cr and Fe fluctuation showed that Ni increases the interdiffusion of Cr in the system, resulting a higher degree of phase separation in SDSS welds than the HDSS weld. Within the composition range of the studied SDSS and HDSS materials, the processing influences the Fe and Cr phase separation more than the variation in composition during short aging or typical fabrication times. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Austenite; Duplex stainless steel; Ferrite; Hot rolled steel; Inverse problems; Phase separation; Probes; Spinodal decomposition; Welding; Welds, 475°C-embrittlement; Aging time; Atom-probe tomography; Duplex stainless; Duplex stainless steel welds; Spinodals; Stainless steel plate; Stainless steel welds; Superduplex stainless steels; Welding, hot rolling, Hot rolling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17452 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2021.110055 (DOI)000704390100007 ()2-s2.0-85113279628 (Scopus ID)
Note

The author would like to acknowledge KK-Stiftelsen for funding of “ALWAYS project”

Available from: 2021-10-18 Created: 2021-10-18 Last updated: 2022-04-04
Baghdadchi, A., Hosseini, V. & Karlsson, L. (2021). Identification and quantification of martensite in ferritic-austenitic stainless steels and welds. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15, 3610-3621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification and quantification of martensite in ferritic-austenitic stainless steels and welds
2021 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 15, p. 3610-3621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims at the phase identification and quantification in transformation induced plasticity duplex stainless steel (TDSS) base and weld metal containing ferrite, austenite, and martensite. Light optical microscopy (LOM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were employed to analyze phases. Samples were either mechanically or electrolytically polished to study the effect of the preparation technique. Mechanical polishing produced up to 26% strain-induced martensite. Electrolytic polishing with 150 g citric acid, 300 g distilled water, 600 mL H3PO4, and 450 mL H2SO4 resulted in martensite free surfaces, providing high-quality samples for EBSD analysis. Martensite identification was challenging both with LOM, due to the similar etching response of ferrite and martensite, and with EBSD, due to the similar lattice structures of ferrite and martensite. An optimized Beraha color etching procedure was developed that etched martensite distinctively. A novel step-by-step EBSD methodology was also introduced considering grain size and orientation, which successfully identified and quantified martensite as well as ferrite and austenite in the studied TDSS. Although here applied to a TDSS, the presented EBSD methodology is general and can, in combination with knowledge of the metallurgy of the specific material and with suitable adaption, be applied to a multitude of multiphase materials. It is also general in the sense that it can be used for base material and weld metals as well as additive manufactured materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Editora Ltda, 2021
Keywords
Duplex stainless steel, Mechanical polishing, Electrolytic polishing, Phase analysis, Martensite, Electron backscatter diffraction
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17790 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.09.153 (DOI)000712162500008 ()2-s2.0-85117073816 (Scopus ID)
Note

 This study received support from the EU-project H2020-MSCA-RISE-2018 Number 823786, i-Weld, and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth through the European Union–European Development Fund

Available from: 2021-12-22 Created: 2021-12-22 Last updated: 2024-02-20
Hosseini, V., Lindgren, K., Thuvander, M., Gonzalez, D., Oliver, J. & Karlsson, L. (2021). Nanoscale phase separations in as-fabricated thick super duplex stainless steels. Journal of Materials Science, 56(21), 12475-12485
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale phase separations in as-fabricated thick super duplex stainless steels
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 56, no 21, p. 12475-12485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanoscale phase separations, and effects of these, were studied for thick super duplex stainless steel products by atom probe tomography and mechanical testing. Although nanoscale phase separations typically occur during long-time service at intermediate temperatures (300-500 degrees C, our results show that slowly cooled products start to develop Fe and Cr separation and/or precipitation of Cu-rich particles already during fabrication. Copper significantly slowed down the kinetics at the expense of Cu-rich particle precipitation, where the high-copper material subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP), with Delta t(500-400) of 160 s and the low-copper hot-rolled plate with Delta t(500-400) of 2 s had the same level of Fe and Cr separation. The phase separations resulted in lower toughness and higher hardness of the HIP material than for hot-rolled plate. Therefore, both local cooling rate dependent and alloy composition governed variations of phase separations can be expected in as-fabricated condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2021
Keywords
Nanoscale phase separations, effects
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17200 (URN)10.1007/s10853-021-06056-0 (DOI)000641219800006 ()2-s2.0-85104858814 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2021-12-16
Vattappara, K., Hosseini, V., Joseph, C., Hanning, F. & Andersson, J. (2021). Physical and thermodynamic simulations of gamma-prime precipitation in Haynes (R) 282 (R) using arc heat treatment. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 870, Article ID 159484.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical and thermodynamic simulations of gamma-prime precipitation in Haynes (R) 282 (R) using arc heat treatment
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 870, article id 159484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Haynes 282 is a Ni-based gamma prime (gamma’) strengthening alloy with a balanced combination of high temperature properties and fabricability. This paper aims to study the evolution of the microstructure and hardness using a novel physical simulation method called arc heat treatment, followed by thermodynamic modeling of gamma’ precipitation. For the arc heat treatment, a steady state temperature gradient was generated using a stationary tungsten inert gas arc on a sample mounted onto a water-cooled chamber. The steady state condition ranged from room temperature to the liquidus and was achieved within the first few sec-onds. Aged and solutionized samples were arc heat treated for 1.5 min, 30 min, and 4 h. The experiments were complemented with temperature modeling, equilibrium calculations, and gamma’ precipitation simulations. A unique graded microstructure formed in the arc heat-treated samples. It consisted of a fusion zone with a dendritic microstructure; a region with the dissolution of all secondary phases (MC carbides, grain boundary carbides, and gamma’); a region with MC and grain boundary carbides; a gamma’ precipitation zone; and the base metal. The temperature range of the dissolution area extended to lower temperatures with increasing arc heat treatment dwell time. The gamma’ precipitation zone showed a distinct etching response coupled with high hardness. The hardness and the temperature range of the gamma’ precipitation zone increased with increasing arc heat treatment time. The gamma’ radii increased with increasing time and temperature. The gamma’ precipitation model, simulated with TC Prisma, showed very good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, the results were used to develop time-temperature precipitation and hardness diagrams. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. CC_BY_4.0

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
High-temperature alloys; Precipitation; Grain boundaries; Kinetics; Thermodynamic modeling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17223 (URN)10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.159484 (DOI)000641325500004 ()2-s2.0-85102989182 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2022-03-30
Hosseini, V., Hurtig, K., Gonzalez, D., Oliver, J., Folkeson, N., Thuvander, M., . . . Karlsson, L. (2021). Precipitation kinetics of Cu-rich particles in super duplex stainless steels. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 15, 3951-3964
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precipitation kinetics of Cu-rich particles in super duplex stainless steels
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 15, p. 3951-3964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Complex precipitation behavior of Cu-rich particles (CRPs) was investigated and simulated in continuously cooled and quench-aged super duplex stainless steel. Atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning electron microscopy showed that slow cooling resulted in nonuniform multimodal CRP precipitation and spinodal decomposition, while in the fast cooled and quench-aged conditions, more uniform precipitation of CRPs with no visible spinodal decomposition was found. Depletion of Cu, Ni, and Mn was observed in the ferrite next to the CRPs during growth, but not during dissolution. Some evidence of Ostwald ripening was seen after slow cooling, but in the quench-aged condition, particle coalescence was observed. Large CRPs disappeared next to a ferrite–austenite phase boundary after slow cooling when Cu was depleted due to the diffusion to austenite as also predicted by moving boundary Dictra simulation. Comparing Cu depleted areas next to CRPs analyzed by APT and moving boundary Dictra simulation of CRP–ferrite showed that the effective Cu diffusion coefficient during the early-stage precipitation was about 300 times higher than the Cu diffusion coefficient in ferrite at 475 °C. Using the effective diffusion coefficient and a size-dependent interfacial energy equation, CRP size distribution was successfully predicted by the Langer–Schwartz model implemented in Thermo-Calc Prisma. Applying a short aging time and continuous cooling increased the hardness and decreased the toughness values compared to the solution annealed condition. A nonuniform distribution of Cu in ferrite, the duplex structure, and partitioning of alloying elements among different phases are factors making CRP precipitation in duplex stainless steels complex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Editora Ltda, 2021
Keywords
Precipitation kinetics, Duplex stainless steels, Moving phase boundary simulation, Atom probe tomography
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-17788 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.10.032 (DOI)000712078600010 ()2-s2.0-85117610752 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2021-12-21 Created: 2021-12-21 Last updated: 2021-12-21
Baghdadchi, A., Hosseini, V., Hurtig, K. & Karlsson, L. (2021). Promoting austenite formation in laser welding of duplex stainless steel-impact of shielding gas and laser reheating. Welding in the World, 65, 499-511
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting austenite formation in laser welding of duplex stainless steel-impact of shielding gas and laser reheating
2021 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 65, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avoiding low austenite fractions and nitride formation are major challenges in laser welding of duplex stainless steels (DSS). The present research aims at investigating efficient means of promoting austenite formation during autogenous laser welding of DSS without sacrificing productivity. In this study, effects of shielding gas and laser reheating were investigated in welding of 1.5-mm-thick FDX 27 (UNS S82031) DSS. Four conditions were investigated: Ar-shielded welding, N2-shielded welding, Ar-shielded welding followed by Ar-shielded laser reheating, and N2-shielded welding followed by N2-shielded laser reheating. Optical microscopy, thermodynamic calculations, and Gleeble heat treatment were performed to study the evolution of microstructure and chemical composition. The austenite fraction was 22% for Ar-shielded and 39% for N2-shielded as-welded conditions. Interestingly, laser reheating did not significantly affect the austenite fraction for Ar shielding, while the austenite fraction increased to 57% for N2-shielding. The amount of nitrides was lower in N2-shielded samples compared to in Ar-shielded samples. The same trends were also observed in the heat-affected zone. The nitrogen content of weld metals, evaluated from calculated equilibrium phase diagrams and austenite fractions after Gleeble equilibrating heat treatments at 1100 °C, was 0.16% for N2-shielded and 0.11% for Ar-shielded welds, confirming the importance of nitrogen for promoting the austenite formation during welding and especially reheating. Finally, it is recommended that combining welding with pure nitrogen as shielding gas and a laser reheating pass can significantly improve austenite formation and reduce nitride formation in DSS laser welds. © 2020, The Author(s).

Keywords
Austenite; Duplex stainless steel; Heat affected zone; Heat treatment; Industrial heating; Microstructural evolution; Nitrides; Nitrogen; Shielding; Welding, Austenite formation; Autogenous laser welding; Chemical compositions; Duplex stainless steel (DSS); Equilibrium phase diagrams; Nitride formation; Nitrogen content; Thermodynamic calculations, Argon lasers
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-16028 (URN)10.1007/s40194-020-01026-7 (DOI)000587932200001 ()2-s2.0-85095716448 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, H2020-MSCA-RISE-2018 Number 823786
Note

Open access funding provided by University West. James Oliver and Ravi Vishnu from the Outokumpu Stainless AB (Avesta, Sweden) are appreciatively acknowledged for their help and support. This study received great support from the EU-project H2020-MSCA-RISE-2018 Number 823786, i-Weld, and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth through the European Union – European Development Fund.

Creative CommonsAttribution 4.0 International License

Available from: 2020-11-16 Created: 2020-11-16 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6242-3517

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