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  • Kerekes, Nora
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression (PAMA)2018Other (Other academic)
  • Motavalli, Zahra
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    The Voice of the Voiceless: The use of African American Vernacular English and linguistic discourses in Tupac Shakur's Changes2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tupac Amaru Shakur was a successful African American musician, poet, and actor most renowned for tackling controversial subject matters in his music as well as using it as a platform to highlight his political opinions and social activism. Tupac used African American Vernacular English (AAVE) in his music. AAVE is a form of English, with its own unique vocabulary, typically spoken in urban communities and historically rooted in the American South.

    The aim of this study is to analyse how Tupac uses language to represent the voiceless America. This research essay focuses on answering two sub-questions. First, what topics/discourses does Tupac rap about in the song Changes and second, how is language used to represent these topic/discourses?

    Changes, one of Tupac's most prominent song, is studied in a qualitative discourse analysis where AAVE (African American Vernacular English) is in the focus. Also, a minor study is presented in three different tables to compare AAVE words with Standard American (SAE).

    The results of this study indicate that AAVE in Tupac's music is purposeful, plays a strong role in his persona, presentation, and can be linked to his political activism. In conclusion, through analyzing Changes, this essay illustrates several examples on how Tupac uses linguistic features to explore several themes and highlight the African American struggle in his society.

  • Najafi, Ehsan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Understanding the effect of material composition and microstructure on the hot corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used in the hot sections of gas turbine engine in order to insulate the substrate at high temperature. Molten salt infiltration retards the durability of TBCs. The current standard material, i.e. 8YSZ is susceptible to molten salt infiltration. Therefore, alternate TBC materials are desirable. In addition to material composition, the TBC microstructure plays an important role in mitigating molten salt infiltration. Therefore, in this work, three different TBC variations were investigated. The first variation was a columnar microstructured 48YSZ TBC processed by SPS (48YSZ-SPS). The second variation was a columnar microstructured 8YSZ TBC processed by SPS (8YSZ-SPS), and the third variation was a lamellar microstructured 8YSZ TBC deposited by APS (8YSZ-APS).

    The as-sprayed TBC specimens were characterized by SEM/EDS, porosity analysis and XRD measurements. Later, the TBC specimens were exposed to hot corrosion test and their interaction with the molten salts were investigated using SEM (EDS and XRD). It was shown that an increase in stabilizer content (yttria content) in zirconia (in the case of 48YSZ) leads to an improved hot corrosion resistance due to the adequate amount of yttria content, which restricts the molten salt infiltration by forming needle like YVO4 phase. In terms of microstructure comparison, the infiltration behavior was similar for columnar microstructured 8YSZ and lamellar microstructured 8YSZ-APS as the molten salts infiltrated the coatings completely compared to the 48YSZ TBC. Furthermore, it seems that the molten salt infiltrates the TBC through globular pores, delamination cracks and splat boundaries in the case of APS-TBCs whereas the column gaps favor easier infiltration of molten salts in the case of columnar microstructured SPS processed TBCs.

  • Wynn, Eleanor
    et al.
    Ronin Institute, USA.
    Vallo Hult, Helena
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Qualitative and Critical Research in Information Systems and Human-Computer Interaction: Divergent and Convergent Paths2019In: Foundations and Trends® in Information Systems, ISSN 2331-1231, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 1-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Systems (IS) and Human Computer Interaction(HCI)–including Computer-Supported Cooperative Work(CSCW)–address the development and adoption of computingsystems by organizations, individuals, and teams. Whileeach has its own emphasis, the timelines for adopting qualitativeand critical research differ dramatically. IS used bothin the late 1980s, but critical theory appeared in HCI onlyin 2000. Using a hermeneutic literature review, the papertraces these histories; it applies academic cultures theoryas an explanatory framework. Institutional factors includeepistemic bases of source disciplines, number and centralityof publication outlets, and political and geographic contexts.Key innovations in IS are covered in detail. The rise ofplatformization drives the fields toward a common scopeof study with an imperative to address societal issues thatemerge at scale.

  • Borg, Margareta
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    "It´s Not For Real": The Tablet as Palette in Early Childhood Education2019In: International Journal of Education and the Arts, ISSN 1529-8094, E-ISSN 1529-8094, Vol. 20, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigated how a group of three-year-old preschool children use the drawing application Doodlecast on iPads. The smoothness, rapid response, and distinctive digital visual expressions of the tablet provided visual feedback that influenced the children's preferences for colors. Doodlecast seemed to encourage the children to explore colors and superimpose and fill-in the iPad's screen. In addition, they painted very precise shapes and lines, which seemed to facilitate pattern making and discovery of signs and relations. The children used the eraser tool to correct, reveal, remove, and create shapes. Irrespective of the method –erasing, superimposing, or filling-in the screen – the clear and professional result seemed to provide a visual confirmation that the children were able to master formulas.

  • Henry, Alastair
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    A drama of selves: Investigating teacher identity development from dialogical and complexity perspectives2019In: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2083-5205, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 263-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identity is of increasing interest in teacher education. Crucial for resilience, the development of a coherent professional identity has been characterized as emerging from tensions between multiple and sometimes conflicting conceptions of what it means to be someone who teaches (Akkerman & Meijer, 2011). While light is being shed on these often antagonistic relations, less is known about the dynamics of identity formation and transformation. Providing a contribution to work on language teacher identity, in this single case study Hermans’ (2008) concept of the dialogical self is combined with complexity principles in an investigation of changes in the emerging professional identity of a pre-service English teacher during a practicum. Drawing on intra- and inter-personal data, experiences of learning to become a person who teaches English are conceptualized as a drama that is played out between different and sometimes unaligned selves. Analyses show how this inner drama maps onto the landscape of an emerging teacher identity, how tensions can be understood systemically, and how a teacher identity system can have a signature dynamic.

  • Raza, Tahira
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Hurtig, Kjell
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Asala, Gbenga
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaju Akanbi
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada.
    Influence of Heat Treatments on Heat Affected Zone Cracking of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Additive Manufactured Alloy 7182019In: Metals, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weldability of additive manufactured Alloy 718 was investigated in various heat-treated conditions. The microstructure of the base metal was examined in detail in order to understand the effect of different pre-weld heat treatments; i.e., solution, solution and aging, and hot isostatic pressing. After welding, the variation in total crack lengths, maximum crack length and the total number of cracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ) were used as criteria for the cracking susceptibility of each material condition where wrought Alloy 718 was used as the reference material. Selective laser melting (SLM) manufactured Alloy 718 was susceptible to HAZ cracking in all material conditions. Total crack lengths in HAZ were highest in the SLM as-built condition and lowest in the SLM hot isostatic pressed condition. The cracks that were found in the HAZ of the welded materials consisted of liquation cracks, with eutectic product surrounding the cracks, as well as cracks from which liquation products were absent.

  • Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Ragnestål-Impola, Carina
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Workplace bullies, not their victims, score high on the Dark Triad and Extraversion, and low on Agreeableness and Honesty-Humility2019In: Heliyon, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e02609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most past research has focused mainly on the personality of the victims of bullying and not on the personality of workplace bullies. Some researchers have suggested that bullies and their victims may share bully-typifying personality traits. The aims of this study were to find out what characterizes the personalities of workplace bullies and their victims, and to investigate the relationship between the Dark Triad, HEXACO and workplace bullying. We tested three hypotheses. H1: Machiavellianism and Psychopathy, but not Narcissism, predict the use of bullying tactics (i.e., bullying perpetration). H2: (Low) Honesty-Humility, (low) Agreeableness and (high) Extraversion predict the use of bullying tactics. H3: Honesty-Humility moderates the association between Machiavellianism and the use of bullying tactics. Employees in southwestern Sweden (N = 172; 99 women) across various occupations and organizations were surveyed. Negative Acts Questionnaire-Perpetrators (NAQ-P) and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) were used to assess the use of bullying tactics and victimization. NAQ-P was correlated with NAQ-R (r = .27), indicating some overlap between the use of bullying tactics and victimization. NAQ-P was correlated with Machiavellianism (.60), Psychopathy (.58), Narcissism (.54), Agreeableness (-.34), Honesty-Humility (-.29) and Extraversion (.28). The results of linear regressions confirmed H1, but only partially confirmed H2: Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, (low) Agreeableness and (high) Extraversion explained 32%, 25%, 27% and 19%, respectively, of the variation in the NAQ-P. Replicating past research, NAQ-R was correlated with Neuroticism (.27), Extraversion (-.22), Openness (-.19) and Conscientiousness (-.16). Neuroticism explained 25% and (low) Extraversion 17% of the variation in the NAQ-R. Confirming H3, Honesty-Humility moderated the relationship between the NAQ-P and Machiavellianism. We conclude that bullies, but not their victims, are callous, manipulative, extravert and disagreeable, and that dishonest Machiavellians are the biggest bullies of all. In practice, the victims of workplace bullying need strong and supportive leadership to protect them from bullies with exploitative and manipulative personality profiles.

  • Chiriac, Eva Hammar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Teacher´s Talk about Group Work Assessment before and after Participation in An Intervention2019In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 95471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that teachers use an indistinct vocabulary, employ few concepts, and expose an embryonic professional language when talking about group work assessment, thus indicating a lack of a professional language. Building on Granström´s three different modes of language use everyday, pseudo-meta- and meta-language, the purpose of this article was to examine the teachers use of languages when talking about group work assessment. Specifically, if and how teachers use of modes of languages are influenced by them partaking in 1) a study about assessment in group work and 2) in an intervention in form of a short educational session. Data were gathered from interviews with eight teachers working in years five and eight in five Swedish compulsory schools and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results revealed that all of the teachers use Granstöms mode of languages to a varying degree when talking about assessment in cooperative situations. A core finding was that intervention in the form of a short education influenced the teachers way of talking in a positive way. By participating in the intervention, the teachers developed and expanded their mode of language, thereby promoting the use of a common professional language about group work assessment.

  • Johansson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Lundh Snis, Ulrika
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Exploring digital service innovation-a Scandinavian perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research in this paper has digital services innovation to support Human-Centred Service Systems (HCSSs) as a foundation. It is a conceptual paper grounded in a multi-disciplinary literature review (Service Science, Innovation Theory and Information Systems). The starting point of the literature review was the special issue on Service innovation in the digital age in MISQ 2015. In the literature review, a combination of concept-centric and author-centric approaches were used. The overriding aim of this paper is to expand our understanding of digital service innovation in Human-Centred Service Systems. The paper has adopted a Scandinavian perspective on digital service innovation in HCSSs. The posted research question is which are the characteristics of digital service innovation in HCSSs? The contribution of the paper is a problematization of digital service innovation in HCSSs from a Scandinavian perspective. In the findings three problems are proposed: the dominant understanding of value, value creation, and value co-creation are grounded in service sciences; the understanding of collaboration and participation by the service beneficiary in networks during digital service innovation and lastly is the lack of understanding regarding heterogeneity among involved actors.

  • Johnsson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boman, Åse
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    Pennbrant, Sandra
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Striving to establish a care relationship-Mission possible or impossible?: Triad encounters between patients, relatives and nurses2019In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: When patients, relatives and nurses meet, they form a triad that can ensure a good care relationship. However, hospital environments are often stressful and limited time can negatively affect the care relationship, thus decreasing patient satisfaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To explain the care relationship in triad encounters between patients, relatives and nurses at a department of medicine for older people.

    DESIGN: A qualitative explorative study with an ethnographic approach guided by a sociocultural perspective.

    METHOD: Participatory observations and informal field conversations with patients, relatives and nurses were carried out from October 2015-September 2016 and analysed together with field notes using ethnographic analysis.

    RESULT: The result identifies a process where patients, relatives and nurses use different strategies for navigating before, during and after a triad encounter. The process is based on the following categories: orienting in time and space, contributing to a care relationship and forming a new point of view.

    CONCLUSION: The result indicates that nurses, who are aware of the process and understand how to navigate between the different perspectives in triad encounters, can acknowledge both the patient's and relatives' stories, thus facilitating their ability to understand the information provided, ensure a quality care relationship and strengthen the patient's position in the health-care setting, therefore making the mission to establish a care relationship possible.

  • Halleröd, Mikaela
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Värdet av att verka tillsammans: En kvalitativ studie om samarbete, samordning och samverkan ur ett medarbetar- och chefsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how different occupational categories within adult education in Swedish for immigrants (SFI) interact within the framework of their common business.

    As a method for carrying out the study, I have used qualitative interviews. The data material presents opportunities and difficulties that appear around working together. The empirical material has been processed through thematic analysis. The theoretical starting point for the study is a model of different degrees of vertical and horizontal integration for understanding collaboration.

    The result shows that there are a variety of temporary collaborations. Through interviews the study give examples of professional categories that meet in everyday work. In addition, work takes place between different professional categories in a more coordinated form through teams. Furthermore, the respondents' experiences of the value of collaborating, such as strengthened relationships and a better working environment, are made visible. Another highlight that is mentioned is the increased possibility for staff to identify the need for support from the students, which leads to better adaptations of teaching. The result also shows how the business is coordinated through teams, and the potential for collaboration. Cooperation between professional categories is not fully achieved today within sfi.

    The conclusions show that there is a consensus among managers and other occupational categories considering which mechanisms make it difficult or possible to cooperate. There are no routines for collaboration today. What employees also demand is someone who leads the work, makes decisions and bears the responsibility of planning, implementing and following up the collaboration.

  • Sacic, Anna
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Digitala verktyg i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: De digitala verktygen ses som en självklar del av samhället, och även de allra flesta barn har en relation till verktygen. Förskolan arbetar utifrån en läroplan som styr vilka strävansmål förskollärarna ska arbeta emot. De digitala verktygen finns inte med som ett av dessa mål. Däremot kan de ses som ett hjälpmedel i arbetet mot lärande och utveckling. Därför är det viktigt att reflektera över syftet med verktygen utifrån det man vill uppnå, med en medvetenhet om att förskolläraren påverkas av olika faktorer som har betydelse för förutsättningar för, och utformning av undervisningen.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att synliggöra hur digitala verktyg används i förskolan.

    Metod: Semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer. Som grund till resultatanalys används begrepp ur ett designteoretiskt multimodalt perspektiv.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att förskollärarna ser på och använder digitala verktyg utifrån flera olika syften tillsammans med barnen i förskolan. Kopplingar görs framför allt till dokumentation, men de ses också som användbara i exempelvis undersökande aktiviteter, faktainhämtning och språkutveckling. Kopplingar till barnens framtida behov av digital kompetens görs, men de uppfattas också som en konkurrent till lek, utevistelse och samspel. Faktorer som påverkar användandet kan utifrån resultatet sammanfattas i fyra kategorier: förskollärarnas syn på digitala verktyg, resurser, kunskap och barns intresse.

  • Hansson, Ida
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Osbakk Malmström, Emma
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    "We face neither East nor West; We face forward": A study about policy implementation to receive Chinese Foreign Direct Investments in Ghana2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor thesis focuses on examining the Ghanaian state's policies regarding inward Foreign Direct Investments and furthermore the policy implementation to attract and receive FDI, the question asked is What policy choices have been implemented by Ghana to attract Chinese FDI?

    This thesis employs a single case study design with a qualitative approach as it seeks to draw upon Liberal IPE and RAM to understand the policy choices in attracting FDI, more specifically how Ghana has shaped their policies. When conducting the analysis, the thesis assembles documents, both primary and secondary data to be able to answer the research question. The documents used for gathering data is from Ghana's government as well as governmental organisations, governmental policies and official statistics to peer reviewed articles and organisational data. This enables the thesis to find empirical evidence to support the aims of the conducted research. Moreover, secondary data will be used to situate, contextualize and present the findings.

    The main problem seen is how the policy behaviour of governments is conducted to receive FDI in this trudge. The solution to the problem is presented to be the policy decision taken to open markets and welcoming Foreign Direct Investment, through reforms aimed at both domestic companies and market as well as to the global markets and actors.

  • Ahlcrona, Hampus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Framvik, Girish
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Pedagogers syn på musik som språkutvecklande verktyg: På förskolan och öppna förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Idén till denna studie framkom efter vår verksamhetsförlagda utbildning (VFU) från förskollärarprogrammet på Högskolan Väst. Musiken och sången finns alltid närvarande genom sångstunder, spontansång vid matbordet eller i form av sångtexter och noter uppsatta på väggarna. Dock är de lärarledda musikaktiviteterna ofta i återskapande form, eller call-response form, det vill säga att barn upprepar något som en pedagog sjunger först. Hur kan det komma sig att musiken, som i läroplanen inte har en uttalad koppling till språket, har en förhållandevis stor roll i förskoleverksamhetens vardag?

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur pedagoger använder musik och musikaktiviteter i språkutvecklande syfte i förskolan. Frågeställningar som användes var på vilka sätt musik kan användas i språkutvecklande syfte, och hur förskolans pedagoger talar om kopplingen mellan musik och språkutveckling.

    Metod: För att svara på dessa frågeställningar valde vi att använda oss av den kvalitativ forskningsmetod, närmare bestämt fokusgrupper. Genom de diskussioner som uppstår i fokusgrupper vidgas deltagarnas synsätt, erfarenheter och åsikter med hjälp av de andra deltagarnas perspektiv. Vi valde just denna metod då vi anser att den ger oss data som kan ge svar på de frågeställningar som framställts. Studien utfördes på förskolor i Västsverige, med deltagare i spridd ålder från flera olika kommunala förskolor samt en öppen förskola inom samma område.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att musiken till stor del används som ett språkutvecklande verktyg på grund av det intresse och den uppmärksamhet musiken bidrar med, den sprider glädje och hjälper barn att slappna av. Det är lätt att variera lärarledda aktiviteter samt anpassa nivån på lärandeobjektet till varje individs behov och nivå. Enligt vissa pedagoger ses inte användningen av instrument i musikaktiviteter som nödvändigt för barns språkutveckling, men det ses som en stor tillgång att ha musikaliskt kunniga pedagoger i arbetslaget. Det syns även skillnad i arbetssättet på förskolor och på öppna förskolan, där öppna förskolan inte har samma krav på verksamheten. Trots det sker sångstunder och musikaktiviteter regelbundet där syftet ofta är att stötta barn i sin språkliga utveckling.

  • Regnér, Susanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Wasberg, Johanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Implementering av stadsgrönska och ekosystemtjänster i urbana miljöer: från start till mål2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the process chain for implementing urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments. This is done from the time the assignment is given by the government to the relevant authority, the continued work there, on to the work out at the municipalities and other relevant actors.

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that we humans receive indirectly and directly by nature. We are dependent on the ecosystems continuing to produce services that are vital to human health, well-being and for our entire existence. Commonly work and careful use of our resources are needed to ensure ecosystem services. Preserving, developing and innovating urban and green areas can result in great social benefits and integrating ecosystem services into physical planning is a step in the right direction.

    Two stagegoals were developed in 2018, where one goal means that the municipalities should have access to a developed method regarding the integration of urban greenery and ecosystem services in urban environments by 2020. The second goal means that a majority of the municipalities must use and integrate urban greenery and ecosystem services by 2025 at the latest, in planning, construction and management.

    The study result is based on how far the municipalities have come to work on the two stagegoals, as well as Boverkets work behind the developed method and with reaching out with the information to the municipalities and other concerned. The result also includes the work in conjunction with Naturvårdsverket when the assignment would take place in collaboration with them. This has been done with both qualitative and quantitative methods, through interviews and questionnaires.

  • Yehorov, Yurii
    et al.
    Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU),Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brazil.
    da Silva, Leandro João
    Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU),Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brazil.
    Scotti, Americo
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU),Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes, Laprosolda, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brazil.
    Exploring the use of switchback for mitigating homoepitaxial unidirectional grain growth and porosity in WAAM of aluminium alloys2019In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 104, no 1-4, p. 1581-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, an alternative approach to prevent unidirectional grain growth in wire + arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is proposed and assessed, by moving cyclically the torch forward and backward, likewise the welding technique known as switchback. A series of tests were planned with CMT (cold metal transfer) process to compare three wall-like build-ups, which uses different deposition patterns, namely, in one-way direction, reverse direction, and switchback. The same equivalent travel speed and number of deposited layers were kept among them. Longitudinal sections were taken to identify the grain growth behaviour. Finally, samples were removed from the walls for porosity evaluation. The results confirmed the characteristics of unidirectional grain growth, when one-way direction condition was employed, and the break of growth direction between layers, when reverse direction was used, yet a zig-zag pattern became present. Differently, the application of switchback showed no preferential or unidirectional grain growth, suggesting less anisotropy of mechanical properties. In addition, switchback reduced porosity. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • Valiente Bermejo, María Asunción
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Teaching Welding with a Flipped Classroom Approach2019In: Welding Journal, ISSN 0043-2296, Vol. 98, no 9, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Mechanics of Solid Materials, Luleå, SE-971 87, Sweden; Division Materials and Production, RISE IVF AB, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Vällaregatan 30, Olofström, SE-293 38, Sweden.
    Pederson, Robert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Mechanics of Solid Materials, Luleå, SE-971 87, Sweden.
    Finite element modeling and validation of springback and stress relaxation in the thermo-mechanical forming of thin Ti-6Al-4V sheets2019In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a hot forming procedure is developed using computer-aided engineering (CAE) to produce thin Ti-6Al-4V sheet components in an effective way. Traditional forming methods involve time- and cost-consuming furnace heating and subsequent hot sizing steps. A material model for finite element (FE) analyses of sheet metal forming and springback at elevated temperatures in Ti-6Al-4V is calibrated and evaluated. The anisotropic yield criterion proposed by Barlat et al. 2003 is applied, and the time- and temperature-dependent stress relaxation behavior for elastic and inelastic straining are modeled using a Zener–Wert–Avrami formulation. Thermo-mechanical uniaxial tensile tests, a biaxial test, and uniaxial stress relaxation tests are performed and used as experimental reference to identify material model parameters at temperatures up to 700 °C. The hot forming tool setup is manufactured and used to produce double-curved aero engine components at 700 °C with different cycle times for validation purposes. Correlations between the predicted and measured responses such as springback and shape deviation show promising agreement, also when the forming and subsequent holding time was as low as 150 s. The short cycle time resulted in elimination of a detectable alpha case layer. Also, the tool surface coating extends the tool life in combination with a suitable lubricant. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Narayan, Karthik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Govindarajan, Sivakumar
    International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad 500069, India.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, 9330 Althofen, Austria.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Exploiting Suspension Plasma Spraying to Deposit Wear-Resistant Carbide Coatings.2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 15, article id E2344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium- and chromium-based carbides are attractive coating materials to impart wear resistance. Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is a relatively new thermal spray process which has shown a facile ability to use sub-micron and nano-sized feedstock to deposit high-performance coatings. The specific novelty of this work lies in the processing of fine-sized titanium and chromium carbides (TiC and Cr3C2) in the form of aqueous suspensions to fabricate wear-resistant coatings by SPS. The resulting coatings were characterized by surface morphology, microstructure, phase constitution, and micro-hardness. The abrasive, erosive, and sliding wear performance of the SPS-processed TiC and Cr3C2 coatings was also evaluated. The results amply demonstrate that SPS is a promising route to manufacture superior wear-resistant carbide-based coatings with minimal in situ oxidation during their processing.

  • Mahade, Satyapal
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Curry, Nicholas
    Treibacher Industrie AG, Auer von Welsbachstr, 1, A-9330 Althofen, Austria.
    Björklund, Stefan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Durability of Gadolinium Zirconate/YSZ Double-Layered Thermal Barrier Coatings under Different Thermal Cyclic Test Conditions2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 14, article id E2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher durability in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is constantly sought to enhance the service life of gas turbine engine components such as blades and vanes. In this study, three double layered gadolinium zirconate (GZ)-on-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBC variants with varying individual layer thickness but identical total thickness produced by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process were evaluated. The objective was to investigate the role of YSZ layer thickness on the durability of GZ/YSZ double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions i.e., thermal cyclic fatigue (TCF) at 1100 °C and a burner rig test (BRT) at a surface temperature of 1400 °C, respectively. Microstructural characterization was performed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and porosity content was measured using image analysis technique. Results reveal that the durability of double-layered TBCs decreased with YSZ thickness under both TCF and BRT test conditions. The TBCs were analyzed by SEM to investigate microstructural evolution as well as failure modes during TCF and BRT test conditions. It was observed that the failure modes varied with test conditions, with all the three double-layered TBC variants showing failure in the TGO (thermally grown oxide) during the TCF test and in the ceramic GZ top coat close to the GZ/YSZ interface during BRT. Furthermore, porosity analysis of the as-sprayed and TCF failed TBCs revealed differences in sintering behavior for GZ and YSZ. The findings from this work provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for failure of SPS processed double-layered TBCs under different thermal cyclic test conditions.

  • Kittelmann Flensner, Karin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Larsson, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Literature, History of Ideas and Religion, Box 200, Gothenburg, S-405 30, Sweden.
    Säljö, Roger
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration. University of Gothenburg, Department of Education, Communication and Learning, Box 100, Gothenburg, S-405 30, Sweden.
    Jihadists and refugees at the theatre: Global conflicts in classroom practices in Sweden2019In: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies schools have an obligation to address complex societal issues such as ethnic/religious tensions and social conflicts. The article reports an exploratory study of how theatre plays were used in upper-secondary schools to generate pedagogically relevant platforms for addressing the current Middle East conflicts and their impact on European societies in the context of religious education and civics. The schools are situated in areas with substantive migrant populations of mixed backgrounds, and this has implications for how these issues are understood as a lived experience. In the same classrooms, there were students who had refugee backgrounds, who represented different interpretations of Islam, and religion more generally, and whose families were victims of terrorism. There were also students with strong nationalist views. The study is ethnographic documenting theatre visits and classroom activities in relation to two plays about the Middle East situation. The results show that plays may open up new opportunities for addressing these issues, but that they may also be perceived as normative and generate opposition. An interesting observation is that a play may generate space for students to tell their refugee story in class, which personalized the experience of what it means to be a refugee. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • Kerekes, Nora
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for health promotion and care sciences.
    Brändström, Sven
    Washington University School of Medicine, Clinical Associate of the Center for Well-Being, St. Louis, MO, United States.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Imprisoning Yoga: Yoga Practice May Increase the Character Maturity of Male Prison Inmates.2019In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 10, article id 406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A specific personality profile, characterized by low character maturity (low scores on the self-directedness and cooperativeness character dimensions) and high scores on the novelty seeking temperament dimension of the temperament and character inventory (TCI), has been associated with aggressive antisocial behavior in male prison inmates. It has also been shown that yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on the inmates' well-being and on risk factors associated with criminal recidivism (e.g., antisocial behavior). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the positive effect of yoga practice on inmates' behaviors could be extended to include eventual changes in their personality profile. Methods: Male prison inmates (N = 111) in Sweden participated in a randomized controlled 10-week long yoga intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either a yoga group (one class a week; n = 57) or a control group (free of choice weekly physical activity; n = 54). All the inmates completed the TCI questionnaire before and after the intervention period as part of an assessment battery. Results: After the 10-week-long intervention period male inmates scored significantly lower on the novelty seeking and the harm avoidance and significantly higher on the self-directedness dimensions of the TCI. There was a significant medium strong interaction effect between time and group belonging for the self-directedness dimension of character favoring the yoga group. Conclusion: A 10-week-long yoga practice intervention among male inmates in Swedish correctional facilities increased the inmates' character maturity, improving such abilities as their capability to take responsibility, feel more purposeful, and being more self-acceptant-features that previously were found to be associated with decreased aggressive antisocial behavior.

  • Gopal, Vasanth
    et al.
    Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT, Vellore 632014, India Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, VIT, Vellore 632014, India.
    Goel, Sneha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Manivasagam, Geetha
    Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, VIT, Vellore 632014, India.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Performance of Hybrid Powder-Suspension Axial Plasma Sprayed Al2O3-YSZ Coatings in Bovine Serum Solution2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 12, article id E1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramic coatings on metallic implants are a promising alternative to conventional implants due to their ability to offer superior wear resistance. The present work investigates the sliding wear behavior under bovine serum solution and indentation crack growth resistance of four coatings, namely (1) conventional powder-derived alumina coating (Ap), (2) suspension-derived alumina coating (As), (3) composite Al2O3-20wt % Yittria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) coating (AsYs) deposited using a mixed suspension, and (4) powder Al2O3-suspension YSZ hybrid composite coating ApYs developed by axial feeding plasma spraying, respectively. The indentation crack growth resistance of the hybrid coating was superior due to the inclusion of distributed fine YSZ particles along with coarser alumina splats. Enhanced wear resistance was observed for the powder derived Ap and the hybrid ApYs coatings, whereas the suspension sprayed As and AsYs coatings significantly deteriorated due to extensive pitting.

  • Forsman, Berit
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Frail Older Persons' Experiences of Information and Participation in Hospital Care2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 16, article id E2829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe frail older persons' experiences of hospital care of information and participation when being an inpatient at a hospital. A qualitative method was used. Data were collected at the hospital from 20 interviews with frail older patients, together with observations in the environment at the hospital ward. A content analysis was performed. Patients experienced not receiving information about their care and rehabilitation, or receiving such information in noisy surroundings. They experienced situations of misunderstanding related to their medication, which indicates the need for appropriate discharge calls for frail older patients. They expressed feelings of distress concerning the future, caused by hasty admissions or relatives' problems to handle the situation. The results highlight the need to receive appropriate information and to participate in decision-making. The level of health literacy should be taken notice of when giving information, using peaceful and quiet environments when informing frail older persons. Person-centered care should be recognized to a greater extent in order for healthcare professionals to give information to frail older people in a health literacy-friendly way. This might make it easier for frail older persons to participate in a partnership in care.

  • Aranke, Omkar
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Algenaid, Wael
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Awe, Samuel
    R and D Department, Automotive Components Floby AB, Floby, 52151, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Coatings for automotive gray cast iron brake discs: A review2019In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gray cast iron (GCI) is a popular automotive brake disc material by virtue of its high melting point as well as excellent heat storage and damping capability. GCI is also attractive because of its good castability and machinability, combined with its cost-effectiveness. Although several lightweight alloys have been explored as alternatives in an attempt to achieve weight reduction, their widespread use has been limited by low melting point and high inherent costs. Therefore, GCI is still the preferred material for brake discs due to its robust performance. However, poor corrosion resistance and excessive wear of brake disc material during service continue to be areas of concern, with the latter leading to brake emissions in the form of dust and particulate matter that have adverse effects on human health. With the exhaust emission norms becoming increasingly stringent, it is important to address the problem of brake disc wear without compromising the braking performance of the material. Surface treatment of GCI brake discs in the form of a suitable coating represents a promising solution to this problem. This paper reviews the different coating technologies and materials that have been traditionally used and examines the prospects of some emergent thermal spray technologies, along with the industrial implications of adopting them for brake disc applications. © 2019 by the authors.

  • In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Severinsson, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Andersson, Kristin
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Det kan vara svårt att sätta fingret på": En studie om förskollärares uppfattningar och erfarenheter gällande arbetet med barn i behov av särskilt stöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barn i behov av särskilt stöd kan ses som ett komplext begrepp. En rapport från Skolinspektionen (2017) ligger till grund för uppsatsens motiv, rapporten visar att förskolepersonal ofta saknar en samsyn över vad särskilt stöd innebär och hur det särskilda stödet utformas. Den teoretiska ansats vår studie utgår från är socialkonstruktivistisk, där människors uppfattningar ses som socialt konstruerade. De analytiska begrepp som används i studien är det kompensatoriska perspektivet, det kritiska/relationella perspektivet och dilemmaperspektivet. Dessa används för att kunna problematisera och analysera förskollärares uppfattningar och erfarenheter om arbetet med barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

    Syfte: Den här studien syftar till att problematisera arbetet med barn i behov av särskilt stöd.

    Metod: I föreliggande studie används semistrukturerade intervjuer för att besvara våra frågeställningar. Nio förskollärare har intervjuats i en mellanstor kommun i Sverige.

    Resultat: Vi finner att förskollärarna anser att barn som avviker från normen, barn med språksvårigheter, barn med diagnoser och barn i gråzonen är de som är i behov av särskilt stöd. Inom temat barn i gråzonen beskrivs bland annat barn med utåtagerande, alternativt inåtvända beteenden och koncentrationssvårigheter. Det särskilda stödet utformas främst i helgrupp, genom bilder och tecken som stöd men även i mindre grupper och individuellt. Så gott som alla förskollärare betonar att deras bemötande är en central del i hur det särskilda stödet utformas. Slutligen anser nästintill alla förskollärare att även faktorer såsom ekonomi, tid och personaltäthet avgör hur särskilda stödet utformas.

  • Hansson, Niklas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Eleonore
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Prestandajämförelse av ABBs EGM och Permanova Lasersystems externaxel för fogföljning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare solutions for seam tracking with a welding robot. At the moment the used solution is an external seventh axis made by Permanova which is going to be compared to software made by ABB called EGM. The primary comparisons shall be done regarding the dead time and the time constant of the two processes. A primary problem with this was the uncertainty that comes with ocular inspection of the graphs in order to extract relevant values. Another problem, that also made construing the curves harder, was that there were some disturbances that caused distorted curves. Experiments were done on a model of the actual process, meaning that no welding equipment was connected to the robot in this model process. Instead a laser sensor was mounted onto the robot that measured against a parallel metal block. The seventh axis was connected for all tests to make sure that the results were comparable when it comes to the weight that the robot arm is burdened with. Each experiment had different parameters, such as speed and distance from the robot's base. Several tests were made with the same parameters to make sure that good results were had.

    One method used for analysis of gathered data was comparing a similar first order system to the step response of different experiments. The values of this approximate step response were tweaked until both step responses were fairly similar, however, the human factor is very relevant in this analysis.

    The results showed a clear advantage towards Permanova's seventh axis in both decreased dead time and time constant. For example, the filtered mean value for the dead time with EGM was 266 ms and a standard deviation of 20,8 ms, while Permanova clocked in at 11,5 ms with a standard deviation of 2,0 ms. The filtered time constants followed the same trend and were at 68 ms, standard deviation of 13,5 ms, for EGM and 33 ms, standard deviation of 4,8 ms, for Permanova. It was quite surprising how big the difference was between EGM and Permanova's seventh axis, but the seventh axis was without a doubt the solution best suited to this kind of process. Due to the lacking performance from EGM it is determined to be unfit for laser welding applications at PTW.

  • Rask, Kajsa
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Mattsson, Madeleine
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Etablering av medborgardialog kring smart mobilitet: En explorativ studie om medborgardialogens inverkan på människans inställning till digitala innovationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our thesis was to examine citizens' attitude in a smaller city to new digital innovations, specifically autonomous vehicles and carpools, as well as opinions about citizens' participation.

    Through a web-based questionnaire, which was distributed on social media, as well as a discussion group on Facebook, an understanding was formed about the human acceptance, motivation factors, views and mobility habits. This was then analyzed to create an understanding of how a citizen dialogue should be conducted in social media. In line with this, we examined whether connections regarding human acceptance of new digital innovations can be affected, depending on how the dialogue is conducted and how much information the citizens are provided with.

    The result showed a clear relationship between knowledge and attitude, where a little knowledge created a more negative opinion. Other interesting discoveries that were identified, were that people see both problem areas and opportunities with a more digitized society. We also found how the respondents wanted increased participation, and that citizens' views are taken into account and have a clear impact on urban development.

    Finally, we conclude that the degree of citizens' participation and how the dialogue is conducted, shape their acceptance and understanding of changes in society and mobility solutions. The research area on human acceptance, participation and dialogue on autonomous vehicles and carpools is an emerging area of research. This means that the essay is exploratory which can enable further and more in-depth research.

  • Lindeman Kim, Jenny
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Brändström, Sara
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Alla barn är mer eller mindre i behov av särskilt stöd": En kvalitativ studie med fokus på barn i behov av särskilt stöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att belysa begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Detta har vi granskat genom att undersöka förskolepersonalens uppfattningar om vilka barn som kan tänkas vara i behov av särskilt stöd och hur arbetet med dessa barn i förskolan ser ut, samt vilket stöd dessa barn kan få. Vi har använt oss av en kvalitativ metod och använt oss utav semi-strukturerade intervjuer och de respondenterna som deltog representerades av verksamma pedagoger i förskolan.

    Vi har sedan analyserat intervjustudien och studiens resultat tyder på att begreppet barn i behov av särskilt stöd är svårdefinierat och otydlig. Resultatet visade även att en diagnos i många fall kan underlätta arbetet för pedagogerna och de barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd, eftersom de lättare kan få tillgång till det stöd som behövs, exempelvis en resurs. Vår studie visade även på att pedagogernas bemötande, kunskap och kompetens om de barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd är viktigt för att kunna stötta barnen.

    Slutsatsen av vår intervjustudie blir att barn i behov av särskilt stöd är ett komplext område att förhålla sig till samt att, det krävs fördjupade kunskaper inom de olika områden som finns gällande barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Exempelvis fördjupade kunskaper om diagnoser, funktionsnedsättningar, språksvårigheter samt verktygens användningsområden. Slutsatsen blir även att tillgången till resurser är begränsad hos de förskolor som vi har besökt och det krävs oftast en diagnos eller uttalad funktionsnedsättning, för att pedagogerna i förskolans verksamhet ska få in resurser till ett barn som är i behov av särskilt stöd.

  • Öbom, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Liirus, Jennifer
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    "Jag tycker att folk kan slänga ett skräp i soptunnan för det är trevligt": En studie om förskolebarns tankar kring hållbar utveckling och hur de uppfattar sig delaktiga i detta arbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Studiens bakgrund ligger i det faktum att hållbar utveckling är en allt mer relevant fråga i dagens samhälle och detta syns både i läroplanen för förskolan (Skolverket, 2018) och i politiska beslut på såväl nationell som multinationell nivå. Detta i form av ökade medel till arbetet med hållbar utveckling i Sverige samt de globala målen som tagits fram av FN (Regeringskansliet, 2019; UNDP, 2017). Tidigare forskning visar att det finns en avsaknad av forskning baserad på barns perspektiv om ämnet hållbar utveckling (Davis, 2009). Vi valde därför att intressera oss för barns tankar om ämnet och deras delaktighet i det.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att belysa vilken förståelse barn uttrycker om ekologisk hållbar utveckling, mer specifikt avfallshantering, och deras upplevelse av hur delaktiga de är i arbetet.

    Metod: För att besvara våra forskningsfrågor valde vi att göra en kvalitativ studie med hjälp av barnintervjuer och observationer. Som komplement har vi även valt att utföra intervjuerna i form av en sorteringsaktivitet som inspirerats av Sofkova Hashemis (2013) metodförfarande vid namn tänka-högt observation. Sju intervjuer gjordes med sammanlagt trettio barn på tre olika förskolor. Intervjuerna varade ca 28–40 minuter och dokumenterades med ljudinspelningar och fältanteckningar. Slutligen analyserades den insamlade empirin utifrån begreppen aktörskap, delaktighet och inflytande samt analysverktyget SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs, u.å; Borg, 2017b).

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att barn har en grundläggande kännedom om avfallshantering i form av källsortering och återvinning. Det finns även en koppling mellan hur utvecklad kännedom barnen har och deras ålder eftersom det främst är äldre barn som utvecklar sina svar och resonemang bakom handlingar och tankar. Studien visar att barnen motiverar avfallshantering med argumentet att det är viktigt att visa omsorg om djur, dock gjordes ingen vidare koppling till miljön. Vidare uppkommer det att en majoritet av barnen inte verkar vara medvetna om arbetet som sker med hållbar utveckling på förskolorna. Sammanfattningsvis visar resultatet att barns uppfattning av deras delaktighet och inflytande på förskolan sträcker sig till den fria leken och när de frågar om lov från vuxna, i övriga sammanhang -även gällande avfallshantering- är det förskollärarna som bestämmer.