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  • Siverbo, Sven
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Business Administration.
    Kan medarbetare styras med beröm?: Teori, litteraturgenomgång och forskningsförslag2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with if it is possible to control employees by praise. More precisely, the report deals with possibilities, risks, advantages and disadvantages related to praising employees for the purpose of directing and motivating them to fulfil organizational objectives. The aim of the report is to develop a structure for describing different praise practices, to generate theory about praise as a control instrument, and to compile current empirical research on workplace praise.

    In addition, the aim is to identify knowledge gaps concerning praise as a control instrument and suggest further research. The report shows that praise may be based on different types of performances, on different criteria and on individual or collective performance. It is also shown that praise may be more or less salient on workplaces. The salience of praise depends on predictability, strength, frequency, who the praiser is, if it is given in public or in private, if it is based on subjective or objective judgement and (maybe) if it given orally or in writing. The theory generation is mainly based on self-determination theory but also on agency theory, expectancy theory, stewardship theory, social-cognitive theory and the attentionbased view.

    Theoretically it is argued that praise has potential to motivate and direct employees and that the effects depend on how praise is given and on context.The literature review confirms the tentative theory in several regards but the dominating impression is that there is need of more empirical studies, especially on the connection between praise and autonomous motivation and between praise and direction but also on collective praise and praise in contexts of high work complexity. The report ends with tangible suggestions for future research.

  • Irwe, Lina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Forsell, Denise
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    "Annars går allt åt helvete": en studie om social hållbarhet som kommunal planeringsaspekt i fysisk planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is about social sustainability, more specifically it is about how four different municipal areas handles issues about social sustainability in their spatial planning. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the priority of this topic and which methods that are used to deal with this subject. The purpose is also to investigate the possible connection between social sustainability and mixed use-city. The analysis has been made by studying comprehensive plans, detailed development plans and other documents connected to the plans. The content of these document has then been analyzed in relation to theories about social sustainability and mixed use-city. Municipal officials have been interviewed to get at more nuanced view on how social sustainability is incorporated into the process of planning.

    The result shows that the four comprehensive plans in a similar way talk about the aims of planning for social sustainability. In the detailed development plans the difference however is significant, varying to what extent and in what way social sustainability is described the planning specification. Bigger plans tend to include the subject in a more extensive way, whilst smaller many plans don't incorporate social sustainability at all. During the interviews many of the officials said that planning for social sustainability is difficult matter and called for more concrete methods, and for the municipality to use the methods available, to affect the spatial planning. The methods used were; land allocation, civil dialogue and social impact assessment. One official mentioned that he/she personally used the Gothenburg-matrix and another had regular meetings with local brokers. All officials talked about mixed use in connection to social sustainability.

    The conclusion that the result of this analysis finally led to is about the social impact assessment as a suitable method for planning for social sustainability, but also about the potential need for a legislation. Perhaps that could be the way to include social sustainability into the process of planning.

  • Hadenius, Amanda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Planering av grönytor och bostäder i turiststarka kommuner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are planning and developing a lot in cities and villages. Due to Sweden's increasing population our needs for housings is increasing and the counties planning befall thereafter. But we do have a need of green areas as well, both seen to health in several perspectives but also for our well-wellbeing. Both green areas and housings are common interest that needs to accommodate in every planning, but how do you plan for those? The purpose for this thesis is to analyse and compare two counties with a lot of tourists in their planning of green areas and housings. The comparing counties are west coastal Tanum and the mountain filled Malung-Sälen. To answer the questions in the thesis the counties overview plans, detailed plans and public prints that was relevant to the subject was studied. Also interviews in a semi structured qualitative method was held with the plan managers in both counties. These was held to gather knowledge and understanding. In the thesis the environmental quality goals is also up-to-date specially the goal good built environment since it has similar grounds as the thesis has focused on.

    The conclusion is that the counties that has been reviewed have different issues in planning. They both have different prerequisites which could contribute to the varied results. Since both counties already have bigger green areas outside the planning side, they do not believe that the question regarding green spaces disappearing in the conurbation is a problem. The fact that housings is utilized as secondary residences instead of permanent is nearby nonexistent in Malung-Sälen while it is a challenge in Tanum. The environmental quality goal is not intentional processed on local level which is necessary in order to slow the loss of biodiversity that we have today, however they have both methods that works in environmental advantage but is not mentioned as environmental quality goal in specific. If the differences in the counties planning are due to their different prerequisites and their structure or if the counties in general have different planning methods cannot with absolute certainty be determined from without only two counties. But it can be determined that these do differ.

  • Mohandass, Venkataramanan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    EB-PBF additive manufacturing of Alloy 718: Effect of shot peening on surface characteristics and high temperature corrosion performance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an upsurge of research interest on Alloy 718 additively manufactured (AM) by electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) technique in aero and land-based gas turbine engines. However, the surface quality of the manufactured components has always been a major challenge. Several factors, including powder particle size, layer thickness, beam parameters, scanning strategies, and inclination angle of the build, govern the surface characteristics. Along with surface roughness resulted from partially melted powder particles, surface defects such as balls, satellites, microcracks as well as up-skin and down-skin surfaces can enhance the vulnerability of the manufactured parts to corrosion. When the surface is unable to withstand the exposed environment adequately, corrosion can be triggered. The surface-induced corrosion failures are increasingly becoming more challenging as the AM components often have complex geometries that render them even more difficult to finish. So, the relatively poor surface finish is the barrier to the full exploitation of the AM industry.

    In the present study, to achieve the desired surface quality, hence an improved high temperature corrosion performance, shot peening was implemented on Alloy 718 parts manufactured by EB-PBF. The high temperature corrosion behavior of the parts was investigated in an ambient air environment at 650 and 800 °C for up to 336 h. The underlying physical and chemical factors at play of the parts exposed to the corrosive environment were investigated too. The effect of topographical features (e.g., surface roughness) and microstructural characteristics (e.g., grain structure, phases, and defects) on high temperature corrosion behavior were analyzed by 3D surface profilometry, hardness test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The surface roughness and high temperature corrosion rate of the parts was significantly reduced after shot peening.

  • Beckman, Anita
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages. Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Göteborg.
    Väntan: Etnografiskt kollage kring ett mellanrum2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about waiting. It's about what happens when an ethnographer goes into the field and asks people to fill a small and indeterminate word like waiting with thoughts, experiences and recollections. The study is primarily based on twenty qualitative interviews with thirteen interviewees in Gothenburg. The interviewees were selected from the ethnographer's own circle of acquaintances and constitute a fairly homogenous group of individuals. They are early middle-aged, were brought up in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s, belong to a relatively well-educated lower middle-class, have artistic/cultural interests and work in the public/cultural sector. In an attempt to put the interviewees' narratives into a wider context, I have collected and used supplementary material in the form of different narratives communicated, for example, through the mass media, fiction, DIY-books, popular science and art. A central point of departure in the study is that the words we use are filled with meanings that we ourselves assign to them, and that an interview is a form of narrative in which knowledge is constructed at that particular moment in time. The aim of this dissertation is to study some of the articulations of waiting. What kind of waiting is highlighted in the narratives of waiting in every day life? Which words, themes, images, characters and motifs are available to use and grapple with? What is the purpose of waiting, and which ideals, norms and perceptions connected with waiting emerge? By listening to and studying the articulations of waiting I capture a time-dimension – that is partly about an everyday perception and organisation of time and partly about a central aspect of becoming a subject at a more existential level. The aspect of time that has been captured here indicates that waiting is about change. When subjectivity is understood as something that happens, an activity, an action or a process, movement is at the core. Being or becoming a subject demands transition and change – the movement from one state to another. Fulfilling oneself means moving between the different positions that one seeks to occupy. Waiting can thus be said to capture the actual passage, which means that this state that we usually define as something stationary and uneventful is actually an important productive mechanism. This then constitutes the actual effort, attempt and charging up involved in being able to attain something else. The driving force in all these processes is different kinds of imagined needs – the need to become a subject and be fulfilled.

  • Johannesson, Marcus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Svensson, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Förutsättningar för småhusbyggande i Dalsland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2012 Boverket calculated a Tobins q for all municipalities in Sweden. Tobin q describes the theoretical profit when building a single-family house, by dividing market value of an existing house with the total production costs of a similar house.

    The municipalities in Dalsland had a Tobins q value between 0,0-0,79. Boverket wrote in their report that a Tobins q below 0,8 means worse possibilities for building new houses, which was true for all the municipalities in Dalsland. This makes it interesting to investigate how many single-family houses that are built in Dalsland, if the housing market has changes to a point that makes it possible to build houses with a theoretical profitability and what would enable more houses to be built.

    Method: To answer how many single-family houses that are built, data, from the planning and construction department was gathered and compiled. Tobins q for the Dalslands municipalities was assessed by dividing the average market value for an existing house with a calculated total production costs for a new house with the same standards. The market values were assessed by looking at sales of single-family houses with the same or similar standard as a new house. The analysis showed that it was too few sales that fit the criteria in all the municipalities, instead all Dalsland was divided in to three submarkets. Rural-, waterfront- and urban locations. The cost of building a new house was calculated for each submarket. The costs that were compiled was for building plot, house, foundation and planning permission.

    What it would take for the housing market to be improved to enable more houses to be built was investigated by conducting interviews with chiefs of municipals, the planning and construction department, real estate agent and a banker.

    Result: How much are being built? 2018 in Dalsland 37 single-family houses was built which results in 0,85 single-family houses per 1000 inhabitants. The study reaches from 2013-2018, but it has shown no clear signs of any changes of the amounts of house that is being built.

    Is it possible to build with theoretical profit? No, it's not likely that you will make a profit from building in Dalsland, but in some locations you can build without taking a loss. Waterfront locations got a Tobins q value of 0,99, which are higher than what the national average was in Sweden 2012 which was 0,9. The two other markets got a somewhat worse result. Rural location got a Tobins q value of 0,75 while urban location got a Tobins q value of 0,68. This study shows that you can't build single-family houses on those locations and make a theoretical profit.

    What would it take for the housing market to be improved to enable more house to be built? The two biggest obstacles according to the municipalities are that the County Administrative Board are turning down requests for dispensation from the Beach Protection Act and that it is hard for people to get a loan to build houses because of the low Tobins q value.

    Their proposal for solutions are that the state needs to make changes, especially legislative changes or additions. For LIS to work better from their point of view, the County Administrative Board should apply a more generous interpretation of the Beach Protection Act, which would result in more dispensations from the coastal protection. They had more solutions for raising their Tobins q value. Examples of these are: grants for new construction of small houses in the countryside, higher grants for apartment buildings and lower the VAT on building materials to name a few.

  • Yousofi, My
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Lantmäterimyndighetens yttranden under samråd och granskningstiden samt kommunernas ställningstagande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detail development plans are a way for the municipalities to regulate the use of land and water territories. The map that follows with the detail development plan is a legal document used by the municipalities to shape the area of the plan by using plan regulations. With the map follows a plan description which describes the purpose of plan, presents the implementation of the plan and the consequences it has on interested parties, the environment and other parties that could be affected by the detail development plan.

    In the case of deficient plan regulations och plan description the consequences for the afflicted parties can lead to costly and drawn out processes. Earlier studies showed that 17 % of all approved detail development plans contained deficient plan regulations.

    According to earlier regulations, the municipalities did not have to consult with the cadastrial authorities for every planning proposal. During this time, the role of the cadastral authority was to make sure the plan regulations refering to property law were correct in their configuration not to cause negative consequenses to the implementation of the detail development plan. The role of the cadastral authories changed in conjunction with a constitutional amendment to the law which took effect 1 januari 2015. The government wanted to make the planning implementation more effective and one way to achieve this was to give the cadastral authority a more distinct and extended role during the planning process.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the municipalities respond to comments made by the cadastral authority during the review time. The result shows that after the first review time 12 % of the detail development plans that the cadastral authority made remarks on had not been corrected by the municipalities. After the second review time, the procentage had decreased to 7 % of all detail development plans. When comparing the actions taken by municipalities with communal cadastral authority and municipalities with state cadastral authority the analysis showed that there where no significant differences between them.

    The studie indicates that the municipalities listen to the opinions and advice given by the cadastral authority, thereby deficient plan regulations and plan descriptions are amended accordingly. This will hopefully lead to a more effective implementation of the detail development plans.

  • Kleiven, Joffen
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - graduate level.
    HBTQ+ personers upplevelser av bemötandet från sjuksköterskan inom psykiatrisk vård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background LGBT persons do not receive a good treatment by healthcare professionals due to insufficient knowledge. Studies indicate LGBT persons are exposed to health-related discrimination to a greater extent. If the treatment is incorrect, the persons may choose not to seek psychiatric care. If the nurse lacks relevant competence, this can lead to suffering for the person and also lead to the person's death.

    Aim LGBT persons' experience of personal interaction with a psychiatric nurse.

    Method A qualitative inductive study with semi-structured interviews. There were ten people who identified themselves as HBTQ + persons who participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis of the data.

    Results There were both good and less good meetings. Important factors for creating a good meeting were broader knowledge about LGBT persons. Participants in the study felt they were better treated by younger nurses compared to older ones. Pride symbols had a good effect by creating a more inclusive feeling, in that the care focus had a tolerance for greater openness, something that made the participants dare to open up more easily to the nurse. There were differences between meeting with the nurse in smaller and larger cities. In smaller towns and cities, participants experienced a lesser understanding and was met with more prejudice and discrimination. In larger cities, patients felt more satisfied meeting with the nurse who showed a greater experience, more openness and had a non-heteronormative approach.

    Conclusion The participants described how they want to be treated individually, while at the same time being treated like everyone else.

  • Bayar, Aylin
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Bergman, Tilde
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Att förändra utan att förstöra: En intervjuundersökning om hur externa byråer arbetar med rebranding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are required to have the ability to be attractive because of today's intense market. They have to constantly make sure that their visual elements and graphic profile are related to the current market conditions. Furthermore the market are placing higher demands on how companies expose their brands and quite often the companies have to do a rebrand to keep their brand relevant. To do this, companies often have to hire an external party, such as an external advertising- or media agency.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what causes a rebranding and how the external agencys are working with the process. The study also examines which factors the agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity and whether it's important to preserve certain core elements from the previous visual identity. This is investigated based on following questions: "What are the reasons to why a company chooses to do a rebrand?", "What do external agencies take into account when designing a new visual identity?" and "Is it important to maintain graphic elements from the previous visual identity?".

    To answer the questions, the researchers have applied a qualitative study where semi-structured interviews have been implemented. Theory is based on secondary sources and previous research that deals with the area of rebranding, visual identity and the different elements of identity.

    The reasons to rebranding can be different. The study also shows that some companies have a visual identity that does not interact with their products or services, which is the reason to rebranding. In summary, the external agencies take into account many of the aspects surrounding the design that are brought up by previous research, but the study also adds new perspectives.

  • Johansson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vattenskyddsområden i Sverige inrättade 2013 - 2019: föreskrifter och ersättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the current and future generations' access to clean water, water supplies need to be protected with protection areas. When the water protection area is formed, the area is divided in different protection zoned depending on the need of protection. When establishing water protection areas, regulations are issued for which restrictions apply within the protection area. The restrictions may result in restrictions on availability that may, for example, impose a ban on the management of chemical pesticides. Such restrictions on access shall, in accordance with Sweden's constitution, be compensated if ongoing land use within the affected part of the property is made considerably more difficult. However, if these limitations are for health protection, environmental protection or safety reasons, what follows from the law regarding the right to compensation. The general rules of consideration are such rules that each property owner must submit to and restrictions that take place in consideration these are not eligible for compensation.

    The present study focuses on investigating if the decision-making authorities, when establishing a water protection area, prescribe a prohibition or a license requirement under the general rules of consideration and thereby avoids their obligation to pay compensation. The prescribed commitments that have primarily been investigated are the management of pesticides, the management of plant nutrients and the storage of forest products. The study has also intended to investigate whether municipalities or county administrative boards act differently when establishing water protection areas and if the protection regulations indicate different depending on which protection zone applies.

    In the present study, the quantitative method has been applied. The examination of the regulations for the selection of water protection areas was done quantitatively. As a complement, qualitative text has been interpreted. The study investigates various legal sources of law that concern water protection areas and the restriction of access they may entail. The sources of law examined are statutes, regulations, an official investigation and court cases. The investigation of these has been done to clarify the practical function of the law and to ensure how it works.

    The study shows that the decision-making authorities to a large extent announce the regulation that may entail an obligation to pay compensation to the property owner. This, although according to practice, is acceptable to issue regulations that mean that the decision authority can circumvent its obligation to pay compensation. In most cases, the protection regulations in the primary protection zone do not coincide with the protection regulations of the secondary zone. According to the essay, it is concluded that which authority it is that establishes the water protection area has no impact on how the regulations are designed. The municipality and the County Administrative Board thus act equally when establishing water protection areas.

  • Schnur, Christopher
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Electron Beam - Powder Bed Fusion Of Alloy 718: Influences Of Contour Parameters On Surface And Microstructural Characteristics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an uprising manufacturing process for parts with complex geometries and low production quantities. Within the layer-wise building process, less additional processes are needed, to produce the parts. This allows a building of parts within a reasonable time- and costs-range. Especially industries, such as aerospace industry, can profit from AM. Electron beam – Powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) is a common technique, within AM, to produce metallic parts out of special alloys such as Alloy 718. This superalloy is a Nickle-Iron based alloy that has high mechanical properties, even in elevated temperatures (up to 650ºC). The combination of such material properties with high geometrical freedom creates new opportunities for the industry. However, it must be noted that a significant drawback of AM-techniques is the need for post-processing because of surface roughness- and microstructural characteristics. Commonly, the produced parts utilize mechanical post process such as milling to provide good surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. To reduce the surface roughness in the contour region, and therefore reduce the amount of mechanical post-processing, the present survey elaborates the effect of relevant parameters on contours such as the number of contours, scanning speed, focus offset and beam current. By using Design of Experiments (DOE), two batches were carried out: one screening batch and a two-level-full factorial design. In those batches, 15×15×15 mm cubes were printed with various parameters and, after that, analysed by using White light interferometry (WLI), Optical microscopy (OM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the program ImageJ was used to perform porosity and melt pool measurements.

    It had been observed that the number of contours had quite a considerable impact on the final surface roughness and the number of defects. Samples with two contours, instead of only one, tend to have a lower surface roughness. Nevertheless, the parameters and their interaction were found to have fundamental effects on the resulting surface roughness and microstructure.