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  • Johansson, Hanna
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mathematics, Computer and Surveying Engineering.
    Vattenskyddsområden i Sverige inrättade 2013 - 2019: föreskrifter och ersättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the current and future generations' access to clean water, water supplies need to be protected with protection areas. When the water protection area is formed, the area is divided in different protection zoned depending on the need of protection. When establishing water protection areas, regulations are issued for which restrictions apply within the protection area. The restrictions may result in restrictions on availability that may, for example, impose a ban on the management of chemical pesticides. Such restrictions on access shall, in accordance with Sweden's constitution, be compensated if ongoing land use within the affected part of the property is made considerably more difficult. However, if these limitations are for health protection, environmental protection or safety reasons, what follows from the law regarding the right to compensation. The general rules of consideration are such rules that each property owner must submit to and restrictions that take place in consideration these are not eligible for compensation.

    The present study focuses on investigating if the decision-making authorities, when establishing a water protection area, prescribe a prohibition or a license requirement under the general rules of consideration and thereby avoids their obligation to pay compensation. The prescribed commitments that have primarily been investigated are the management of pesticides, the management of plant nutrients and the storage of forest products. The study has also intended to investigate whether municipalities or county administrative boards act differently when establishing water protection areas and if the protection regulations indicate different depending on which protection zone applies.

    In the present study, the quantitative method has been applied. The examination of the regulations for the selection of water protection areas was done quantitatively. As a complement, qualitative text has been interpreted. The study investigates various legal sources of law that concern water protection areas and the restriction of access they may entail. The sources of law examined are statutes, regulations, an official investigation and court cases. The investigation of these has been done to clarify the practical function of the law and to ensure how it works.

    The study shows that the decision-making authorities to a large extent announce the regulation that may entail an obligation to pay compensation to the property owner. This, although according to practice, is acceptable to issue regulations that mean that the decision authority can circumvent its obligation to pay compensation. In most cases, the protection regulations in the primary protection zone do not coincide with the protection regulations of the secondary zone. According to the essay, it is concluded that which authority it is that establishes the water protection area has no impact on how the regulations are designed. The municipality and the County Administrative Board thus act equally when establishing water protection areas.

  • Schnur, Christopher
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Electron Beam - Powder Bed Fusion Of Alloy 718: Influences Of Contour Parameters On Surface And Microstructural Characteristics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an uprising manufacturing process for parts with complex geometries and low production quantities. Within the layer-wise building process, less additional processes are needed, to produce the parts. This allows a building of parts within a reasonable time- and costs-range. Especially industries, such as aerospace industry, can profit from AM. Electron beam – Powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) is a common technique, within AM, to produce metallic parts out of special alloys such as Alloy 718. This superalloy is a Nickle-Iron based alloy that has high mechanical properties, even in elevated temperatures (up to 650ºC). The combination of such material properties with high geometrical freedom creates new opportunities for the industry. However, it must be noted that a significant drawback of AM-techniques is the need for post-processing because of surface roughness- and microstructural characteristics. Commonly, the produced parts utilize mechanical post process such as milling to provide good surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. To reduce the surface roughness in the contour region, and therefore reduce the amount of mechanical post-processing, the present survey elaborates the effect of relevant parameters on contours such as the number of contours, scanning speed, focus offset and beam current. By using Design of Experiments (DOE), two batches were carried out: one screening batch and a two-level-full factorial design. In those batches, 15×15×15 mm cubes were printed with various parameters and, after that, analysed by using White light interferometry (WLI), Optical microscopy (OM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the program ImageJ was used to perform porosity and melt pool measurements.

    It had been observed that the number of contours had quite a considerable impact on the final surface roughness and the number of defects. Samples with two contours, instead of only one, tend to have a lower surface roughness. Nevertheless, the parameters and their interaction were found to have fundamental effects on the resulting surface roughness and microstructure.