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  • Zafer, Yunus Emre
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Goel, Sneha
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing.
    Ganvir, Ashish
    Research & Technology, Department of Process Engineering, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, 461 81 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Science and Engineering, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Research Enviroment Production Technology West.
    Encapsulation of Electron Beam Melting Produced Alloy 718 to Reduce Surface Connected Defects by Hot Isostatic Pressing2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects in electron beam melting (EBM) manufactured Alloy 718 are inevitable to some extent, and are of concern as they can degrade mechanical properties of the material. Therefore, EBM-manufactured Alloy 718 is typically subjected to post-treatment to improve the properties of the as-built material. Although hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) is usually employed to close the defects, it is widely known that HIPing cannot close open-to-surface defects. Therefore, in this work, a hypothesis is formulated that if the surface of the EBM-manufactured specimen is suitably coated to encapsulate the EBM-manufactured specimen, then HIPing can be effective in healing such surface-connected defects. The EBM-manufactured Alloy 718 specimens were coated by high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying using Alloy 718 powder prior to HIPing to evaluate the above approach. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) analysis of the defects in the same coated sample before and after HIPing showed that some of the defects connected to the EBM specimen surface were effectively encapsulated by the coating, as they were closed after HIPing. However, some of these surface-connected defects were retained. The reason for such remnant defects is attributed to the presence of interconnected pathways between the ambient and the original as-built surface of the EBM specimen, as the specimens were not coated on all sides. These pathways were also exaggerated by the high surface roughness of the EBM material and could have provided an additional path for argon infiltration, apart from the uncoated sides, thereby hindering complete densification of the specimen during HIPing.

  • Svensson, Ann
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Informatics.
    Identifying motives for implementing ehealth by using activity theory2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    eHealth interventions are utilized as a solution to address the current demographic challenges in society, as the number of old people increases. Thus, working life, work practice, and professional requirements needed for providing healthcare services will be transformed. The aim of this paper is to explore contradictive motives regarding the professionals’ work practice when introducing innovative eHealth technologies in Scandinavian healthcare services at a municipal level. The study is based on two qualitative group interviews where nurses, assistant nurses, occupational and physiotherapists, as well as project managers participated. Two persons from an IT department were also interviewed. The interviews were analyzed by thematic analysis. The activity theory is used to explore the individuals’ different contradictive motives in this work practice. The work practice consists of a collaborative activity, where expansive learning is important in this transformation of work to obtain a sustainable society. The motives identified in this study are to (1) improve quality of life for the patients, (2) create attractive and interesting work for the employees, (3) save money for the municipality, (4) learn about new technology, and (5) use the municipality’s resources effectively. © 2020 by the authors.

  • Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Wågberg, Pernilla
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att finna en mening i en osäker och förändrad framtid: Patienters upplevelse av palliativ vård2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of palliative care is to give the patients a good quality in the end of life, relive suffering and help them live life as normal as possible. The patients should always be involved in their own care.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to illustrate how patients experience palliative care.

    Method: This is a literature-based study that is based on nine qualitative analyzed articles. The articles analyze was based on Friberg five step model.

    Results: The results presented in two categories: I´m changing and A safe response. The results show that it´s important to be aware of every human's individual needs and thoughts in palliative care to give the best care.

    Conclusion: This study shows that lack of time on hospital care affect patients care negatively. The best palliative care is the one given to patients at their own home.

  • Nielsen Fernandes, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Holmgren, Monique
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Sjuksköterskans följsamhet till handhygien2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infection. Despite previous research, millions of people are infected every year by health-related infections. According to WHO guidelines, hand hygiene must be performed on five occasions. The five occasions are before touching the patient, before clean and aseptic procedures, after exposure to body fluid, after patient contact and after close contact with the patient environment.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe hand hygiene among nurses in a hospital environment.

    Method: For this study two methods were used to collect data. One using observations and one using scientific articles. To analyze the collected data a method to analyze qualitative data was used.

    Results: Many different factors affect the nurse's compliance to hand hygiene. In the scientific studies, the nurses described their surroundings, their knowledge and their willingness to perform hand hygiene based on self-benefit as the factors that most strongly affect compliance. From the observations it emerged that the nurse performed hand hygiene to a greater extent after performed care compared to before.

    Conclusion: Nurses perform hand hygiene to protect themselves and their families, and some nurses do not believe that hand hygiene can prevent the spread of infections.

  • Rödin, Marie
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Fernandes, Josephine
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Att leva med en partner med demens: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is an increasing global health problem as the population grows older and older. It is usually the partners who must take care of these people with dementia, which can be a very tough role.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to illuminate experiences of living with a partner with a dementia diagnosis.

    Method: A literature-based study was performed, analyzing 13 qualitative articles with Friberg's five step model.

    Results: Three main themes emerged with ten subthemes. The first theme was changes in the relationship with three subthemes, personality changes, from partner to career and changes in the intimate and loving relationship. The second main theme was the need of support with four subthemes, an absent presence, difficultness of communication, social support and the feelings of relief. The third theme was the psychosocial strain with three subthemes, an emotional roller coaster, strategy development and an uncertain future.

    Conclusion: This study mainly shows negative experiences of living with a partner with dementia. Partners are affected by the personality changes of the person with dementia and the increased need for care that leads to a changed life situation and a degraded well-being. Therefore, the nurse has a great responsibility in supporting these partners, confirming their individual needs and providing information about help and support they can get from society.

  • Raza, Tahira
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Process Understanding and Weldability of Laser-Powder Bed Fusion Manufactured Alloy 7182020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that involves building components by fusing fine metal powders using laser. There is no universal set of process parameters that can yield optimum results for all the different materials, geometries, and L-PBF machines. The research performed at hand regarding the process parameters showed that laser power, scanning speed, laser exposure time, and laser point distance are the most influential process parameters to decrease the amount of lack of fusion. In contrast, gas porosities are unavoidable in the L-PBF material because they can occur either because of powder particles containing inherent gas pores from the powder atomisation process or entrapped shielding gas during the L-PBF process. 

    To fully utilise the L-PBF technique as a commercial production process, joining of small parts to build large-sized or complex shaped components, such as structural components for jet engines, can be a solution. The as-built microstructure of L-PBF-manufactured superalloy Alloy 718, which is the material in focus in the present research, has grains mostly oriented in the building direction of the part with a very fine cellular-dendritic structure within them. The microstructure of the alloy also contains NbC, TiN and low melting Laves phase in the interdendritic regions and along the grain boundaries. The specimens in this study were subjected to different heat treatments, such as hot isostatic pressing (HIP), solution heat treatment, and solution and ageing heat treatment, prior to welding, to study the effect of these heat treatments on the microstructure of the L-PBF-718 with regard to the susceptibility towards heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking during welding. Results showed that L-PBF-718 was susceptible to HAZ cracking during welding in all material conditions. L-PBF-718 subjected to HIP was more prone to HAZ cracking while welding and revealed a lower ductility behaviour in comparison to L-PBF-718 in the as-builtixcondition and wrought Alloy 718. The welding direction with respect to the graingrowth direction in L-PBF-718 was also found to have a significant influence onhot cracking susceptibility. The extent of HAZ cracking was observed to besmaller in samples welded parallel to the elongated grain orientation than insamples where the welding was performed perpendicular to it.

  • Berglund Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Hammarberg, Cia
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology.
    Leva med IBS: kvalitativ studie om upplevd livskvalité hos personer med IBS2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder characterized by various symptoms (bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation) that impact the lives of those affected. Since there is no treatment and cure, many learn how to accept and live with their condition.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of quality of life in people with IBS, from a health psychology perspective.

    Semistructured interviews were conducted using an interview guide. A total of seven women who were between 19 and 62-years-old were interviewed. Data were analyzed by thematic analysis. After analysis, four themes; strategies, emotions, diagnosis and social support, emerged.

    The results showed that the participants established strategies for managing their IBS. A feeling of inadequacy emerged when participants felt that they could not live up to the role of mother and friend because of their symptoms. Many of the participants experienced a feeling of relief when they were diagnosed as this meant they could rule out being affected by a serious illness. Furthermore, differences in the subjective experience of the quality of care emerged depending on whether the participants had access to private health insurance or not.

    Overall, the results show that IBS impacts the quality of life of those affected both physically, mentally and socially.

  • Bråberg, Frida
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Norberger, Matilda
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Var fjärde kvinna: Sjuksköterskans identifiering av kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate partner violence is a major social problem and it's mainly women who are affected. Nurses have a responsibility to identify these women exposed to violence in order to provide them with adequate care. Routines and guidelines in identification exists but many women exposed to violence remain unidentified.

    Aim: To describe which factors influence nurses' identification of women exposed to intimate partner violence.

    Method: A literature review was completed where eleven articles have been searched through the databases Cinahl and Pubmed. The articles were analysed according to a five-step model.

    Results: Several factors emerged which are summarized into three categories: Factors regarding the nurse, Factors regarding the women exposed to violence and Factors in the health care environment.

    Conclusion: Important factors were the nurses' idea of and relationship with the women exposed to violence, lack of education and absence of privacy and routines.